ncurses 6.0 - patch 20171118
[ncurses.git] / doc / html / man / curs_attr.3x.html
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30   * @Id: curs_attr.3x,v 1.61 2017/11/18 23:47:37 tom Exp @
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63 <H1 class="no-header">curs_attr 3x</H1>
64 <PRE>
65 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>                                                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
66
67
68
69
70 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-NAME">NAME</a></H2><PRE>
71        <STRONG>attr_get</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattr_get</STRONG>, <STRONG>attr_set</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattr_set</STRONG>, <STRONG>attr_off</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattr_off</STRONG>, <STRONG>attr_on</STRONG>,
72        <STRONG>wattr_on</STRONG>, <STRONG>attroff</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattroff</STRONG>, <STRONG>attron</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattron</STRONG>, <STRONG>attrset</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattrset</STRONG>, <STRONG>chgat</STRONG>,
73        <STRONG>wchgat</STRONG>, <STRONG>mvchgat</STRONG>, <STRONG>mvwchgat</STRONG>, <STRONG>color_set</STRONG>, <STRONG>wcolor_set</STRONG>, <STRONG>standend</STRONG>, <STRONG>wstandend</STRONG>,
74        <STRONG>standout</STRONG>, <STRONG>wstandout</STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> character and window attribute control
75        routines
76
77
78 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></H2><PRE>
79        <STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>
80
81        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_get(attr_t</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
82        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wattr_get(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
83        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_set(attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
84        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wattr_set(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
85
86        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_off(attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
87        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wattr_off(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
88        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_on(attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
89        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wattr_on(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
90
91        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>attroff(int</STRONG> <EM>attrs);</EM>
92        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wattroff(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
93        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>attron(int</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
94        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wattron(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
95        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>attrset(int</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
96        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wattrset(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>attrs</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
97
98        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>chgat(int</STRONG> <EM>n</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attr</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
99        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wchgat(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG>
100              <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>n</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attr</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
101        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>mvchgat(int</STRONG> <EM>y</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>x</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG>
102              <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>n</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attr</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
103        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>mvwchgat(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win,</EM> <EM>int</EM> <EM>y,</EM> <EM>int</EM> <EM>x</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG>
104              <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>n,</EM> <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> <EM>attr</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>void</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
105
106        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>color_set(short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void*</STRONG> <EM>opts</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
107        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wcolor_set(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>void*</STRONG> <EM>opts);</EM>
108
109        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>standend(void);</STRONG>
110        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wstandend(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
111        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>standout(void);</STRONG>
112        <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wstandout(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>win</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
113
114
115 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></H2><PRE>
116        These  routines  manipulate the current attributes of the named window,
117        which then apply to all characters that are  written  into  the  window
118        with  <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>,  <STRONG>waddstr</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>wprintw</STRONG>.  Attributes are a property of the
119        character, and move with the character through any  scrolling  and  in-
120        sert/delete  line/character  operations.   To the extent possible, they
121        are displayed as appropriate modifications to the graphic rendition  of
122        characters put on the screen.
123
124        These  routines do not affect the attributes used when erasing portions
125        of the window.  See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG> for functions which  modify  the  at-
126        tributes used for erasing and clearing.
127
128        Routines  which  do  not have a <STRONG>WINDOW*</STRONG> parameter apply to <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.  For
129        example, <STRONG>attr_set</STRONG> is the <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG> variant of <STRONG>wattr_set</STRONG>.
130
131
132 </PRE><H3><a name="h3-Window-attributes">Window attributes</a></H3><PRE>
133        There are two sets of functions:
134
135        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   functions for manipulating the window attributes  and  color:  <STRONG>wat-</STRONG>
136            <STRONG>tr_set</STRONG> and <STRONG>wattr_get</STRONG>.
137
138        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   functions  for manipulating only the window attributes (not color):
139            <STRONG>wattr_on</STRONG> and <STRONG>wattr_off</STRONG>.
140
141        The <STRONG>wattr_set</STRONG> function sets the current attributes of the given  window
142        to <EM>attrs</EM>, with color specified by <EM>pair</EM>.
143
144        Use <STRONG>wattr_get</STRONG> to retrieve attributes for the given window.
145
146        Use  <STRONG>attr_on</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>wattr_on</STRONG>  to turn on window attributes, i.e., values
147        OR'd together in <EM>attr</EM>, without affecting  other  attributes.   Use  <STRONG>at-</STRONG>
148        <STRONG>tr_off</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>wattr_off</STRONG> to turn off window attributes, again values OR'd
149        together in <EM>attr</EM>, without affecting other attributes.
150
151
152 </PRE><H3><a name="h3-Legacy-window-attributes">Legacy window attributes</a></H3><PRE>
153        Most of the window attribute routines are extensions of older  routines
154        which  assume  that  color pairs are OR'd into the attribute parameter.
155        These older routines use the same name, omitting an underscore (<STRONG>_</STRONG>).
156
157        The <STRONG>attrset</STRONG> routine is a legacy feature predating SVr4 curses but  kept
158        in X/Open Curses for the same reason that SVr4 curses kept it: compati-
159        bility.
160
161        The remaining <STRONG>attr</STRONG>* functions operate exactly  like  the  corresponding
162        <STRONG>attr_</STRONG>*  functions,  except  that they take arguments of type <STRONG>int</STRONG> rather
163        than <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG>.
164
165        There is no corresponding <STRONG>attrget</STRONG> function as such  in  X/Open  Curses,
166        although ncurses provides <STRONG>getattrs</STRONG> (see <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>).
167
168
169 </PRE><H3><a name="h3-Change-character-rendition">Change character rendition</a></H3><PRE>
170        The  routine  <STRONG>chgat</STRONG> changes the attributes of a given number of charac-
171        ters starting at the current cursor location of <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.   It  does  not
172        update  the cursor and does not perform wrapping.  A character count of
173        -1 or greater than the remaining  window  width  means  to  change  at-
174        tributes  all the way to the end of the current line.  The <STRONG>wchgat</STRONG> func-
175        tion generalizes this to any window; the <STRONG>mvwchgat</STRONG> function does a  cur-
176        sor move before acting.
177
178        In  these  functions, the color <EM>pair</EM> argument is a color-pair index (as
179        in the first argument of <STRONG>init_pair</STRONG>, see <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>).
180
181
182 </PRE><H3><a name="h3-Change-window-color">Change window color</a></H3><PRE>
183        The routine <STRONG>color_set</STRONG> sets the current color of the given window to the
184        foreground/background  combination  described by the color <EM>pair</EM> parame-
185        ter.
186
187
188 </PRE><H3><a name="h3-Standout">Standout</a></H3><PRE>
189        The routine <STRONG>standout</STRONG> is the same as  <STRONG>attron(A_STANDOUT)</STRONG>.   The  routine
190        <STRONG>standend</STRONG>  is  the  same as <STRONG>attrset(A_NORMAL)</STRONG> or <STRONG>attrset(0)</STRONG>, that is, it
191        turns off all attributes.
192
193        X/Open does not mark these "restricted", because
194
195        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   they have well established legacy use, and
196
197        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   there is no ambiguity about the way the attributes  might  be  com-
198            bined with a color pair.
199
200
201 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-VIDEO-ATTRIBUTES">VIDEO ATTRIBUTES</a></H2><PRE>
202        The following video attributes, defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>, can be passed to
203        the routines <STRONG>attron</STRONG>, <STRONG>attroff</STRONG>, and <STRONG>attrset</STRONG>, or OR'd with the  characters
204        passed to <STRONG>addch</STRONG> (see <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>).
205
206               <EM>Name</EM>           <EM>Description</EM>
207               -----------------------------------------------------------
208               <STRONG>A_NORMAL</STRONG>       Normal display (no highlight)
209               <STRONG>A_STANDOUT</STRONG>     Best highlighting mode of the terminal.
210               <STRONG>A_UNDERLINE</STRONG>    Underlining
211               <STRONG>A_REVERSE</STRONG>      Reverse video
212               <STRONG>A_BLINK</STRONG>        Blinking
213               <STRONG>A_DIM</STRONG>          Half bright
214               <STRONG>A_BOLD</STRONG>         Extra bright or bold
215               <STRONG>A_PROTECT</STRONG>      Protected mode
216               <STRONG>A_INVIS</STRONG>        Invisible or blank mode
217               <STRONG>A_ALTCHARSET</STRONG>   Alternate character set
218               <STRONG>A_ITALIC</STRONG>       Italics (non-X/Open extension)
219               <STRONG>A_CHARTEXT</STRONG>     Bit-mask to extract a character
220
221        These  video  attributes are supported by <STRONG>attr_on</STRONG> and related functions
222        (which also support the attributes recognized by <STRONG>attron</STRONG>, etc.):
223
224               <EM>Name</EM>            <EM>Description</EM>
225               -----------------------------------------
226               <STRONG>WA_HORIZONTAL</STRONG>   Horizontal highlight
227               <STRONG>WA_LEFT</STRONG>         Left highlight
228               <STRONG>WA_LOW</STRONG>          Low highlight
229               <STRONG>WA_RIGHT</STRONG>        Right highlight
230               <STRONG>WA_TOP</STRONG>          Top highlight
231               <STRONG>WA_VERTICAL</STRONG>     Vertical highlight
232
233        The return values of many of these routines are  not  meaningful  (they
234        are  implemented  as macro-expanded assignments and simply return their
235        argument).  The SVr4 manual page claims (falsely) that  these  routines
236        always return <STRONG>1</STRONG>.
237
238
239 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></H2><PRE>
240        These functions may be macros:
241
242               <STRONG>attroff</STRONG>,  <STRONG>wattroff</STRONG>, <STRONG>attron</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattron</STRONG>, <STRONG>attrset</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattrset</STRONG>, <STRONG>standend</STRONG>
243               and <STRONG>standout</STRONG>.
244
245        Color pair values can only be OR'd with attributes if the  pair  number
246        is less than 256.  The alternate functions such as <STRONG>color_set</STRONG> can pass a
247        color pair value directly.  However, ncurses ABI 4 and 5 simply OR this
248        value  within  the  alternate functions.  You must use ncurses ABI 6 to
249        support more than 256 color pairs.
250
251
252 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-HISTORY">HISTORY</a></H2><PRE>
253        X/Open Curses is largely based  on  SVr4  curses,  adding  support  for
254        "wide-characters"  (not  specific to Unicode).  Some of the X/Open dif-
255        ferences from SVr4 curses address the way video attributes can  be  ap-
256        plied  to  wide-characters.   But aside from that, <STRONG>attrset</STRONG> and <STRONG>attr_set</STRONG>
257        are similar.  SVr4 curses provided the basic features for  manipulating
258        video  attributes.  However, earlier versions of curses provided a part
259        of these features.
260
261        As seen in 2.8BSD, curses assumed 7-bit characters,  using  the  eighth
262        bit  of  a byte to represent the <EM>standout</EM> feature (often implemented as
263        bold and/or reverse video).  The BSD curses library provided  functions
264        <STRONG>standout</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>standend</STRONG> which were carried along into X/Open Curses due
265        to their pervasive use in legacy applications.
266
267        Some terminals in the 1980s  could  support  a  variety  of  video  at-
268        tributes,  although the BSD curses library could do nothing with those.
269        System V (1983) provided an improved curses library.  It defined the <STRONG>A_</STRONG>
270        symbols  for  use  by  applications to manipulate the other attributes.
271        There are few useful references for the chronology.
272
273        Goodheart's book <EM>UNIX</EM> <EM>Curses</EM> <EM>Explained</EM> (1991)  describes  SVr3  (1987),
274        commenting on several functions:
275
276        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the  <STRONG>attron</STRONG>,  <STRONG>attroff</STRONG>, <STRONG>attrset</STRONG> functions (and most of the functions
277            found in SVr4 but not in BSD curses) were introduced by System V,
278
279        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the alternate character set feature with <STRONG>A_ALTCHARSET</STRONG> was added  in
280            SVr2 and improved in SVr3 (by adding <STRONG>acs_map[]</STRONG>),
281
282        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>start_color</STRONG>  and  related color-functions were introduced by System
283            V.3.2,
284
285        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   pads, soft-keys were added in SVr3, and
286
287        Goodheart did not mention the background character or the <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> type.
288        Those are respectively SVr4 and X/Open features.  He did mention the <STRONG>A_</STRONG>
289        constants, but did not indicate their values.  Those were not the  same
290        in different systems, even for those marked as System V.
291
292        Different  Unix  systems  used  different  sizes  for the bit-fields in
293        <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> for <EM>characters</EM> and <EM>colors</EM>, and took into account  the  different
294        integer sizes (32-bit versus 64-bit).
295
296        This  table  showing  the number of bits for <STRONG>A_COLOR</STRONG> and <STRONG>A_CHARTEXT</STRONG> was
297        gleaned from the curses header files for various operating systems  and
298        architectures.   The inferred architecture and notes reflect the format
299        and size of the defined constants as well as clues such as  the  alter-
300        nate  character  set implementation.  A 32-bit library can be used on a
301        64-bit system, but not necessarily the reverse.
302
303               <EM>Year</EM>   <EM>System</EM>        <EM>Arch</EM>    <EM>Color</EM>   <EM>Char</EM>   <EM>Notes</EM>
304               ----------------------------------------------------------------
305               1992   Solaris 5.2   32      6       17     SVr4 curses
306               1992   HPUX 9        32      no      8      SVr2 curses
307               1992   AIX 3.2       32      no      23     SVr2 curses
308               1994   OSF/1 r3      32      no      23     SVr2 curses
309               1995   HP-UX 10.00   32      6       16     SVr3 "curses_colr"
310               1995   HP-UX 10.00   32      6       8      SVr4, X/Open curses
311               1995   Solaris 5.4   32/64   7       16     X/Open curses
312               1996   AIX 4.2       32      7       16     X/Open curses
313               1996   OSF/1 r4      32      6       16     X/Open curses
314               1997   HP-UX 11.00   32      6       8      X/Open curses
315               2000   U/Win         32/64   7/31    16     uses <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>
316
317        Notes:
318
319           Regarding HP-UX,
320
321           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   HP-UX 10.20 (1996) added support for 64-bit  PA-RISC  processors
322               in 1996.
323
324           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   HP-UX  10.30 (1997) marked "curses_colr" obsolete.  That version
325               of curses was dropped with HP-UX 11.30 in 2006.
326
327           Regarding OSF/1 (and Tru64),
328
329           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   These used 64-bit hardware.  Like ncurses, the OSF/1 curses  in-
330               terface is not customized for 32-bit and 64-bit versions.
331
332           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Unlike other systems which evolved from AT&amp;T code, OSF/1 provid-
333               ed a new implementation for X/Open curses.
334
335           Regarding Solaris,
336
337           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The initial release of Solaris was in 1992.
338
339           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The <EM>xpg4</EM> (X/Open) curses was developed by MKS from 1990 to 1995.
340               Sun's copyright began in 1996.
341
342           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Sun updated the X/Open curses interface after 64-bit support was
343               introduced in 1997, but did not modify the  SVr4  curses  inter-
344               face.
345
346           Regarding U/Win,
347
348           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Development  of  the  curses  library  began in 1991, stopped in
349               2000.
350
351           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Color support was added in 1998.
352
353           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The library uses only <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> (no <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG>).
354
355        Once X/Open curses was adopted in the mid-1990s, the  constraint  of  a
356        32-bit interface with many colors and wide-characters for <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> became
357        a moot point.  The <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> structure (whose size and  members  are  not
358        specified in X/Open Curses) could be extended as needed.
359
360        Other interfaces are rarely used now:
361
362        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   BSD  curses was improved slightly in 1993/1994 using Keith Bostic's
363            modification to make the library 8-bit clean  for  <STRONG>nvi</STRONG>.   He  moved
364            <EM>standout</EM> attribute to a structure member.
365
366            The  resulting  4.4BSD curses was replaced by ncurses over the next
367            ten years.
368
369        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   U/Win is rarely used now.
370
371
372 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></H2><PRE>
373        This implementation provides the <STRONG>A_ITALIC</STRONG> attribute for terminals which
374        have  the  <STRONG>enter_italics_mode</STRONG> (<STRONG>sitm</STRONG>) and <STRONG>exit_italics_mode</STRONG> (<STRONG>ritm</STRONG>) capa-
375        bilities.  Italics are not mentioned in X/Open Curses.  Unlike the oth-
376        er  video attributes, <STRONG>A_ITALIC</STRONG> is unrelated to the <STRONG>set_attributes</STRONG> capa-
377        bilities.  This  implementation  makes  the  assumption  that  <STRONG>exit_at-</STRONG>
378        <STRONG>tribute_mode</STRONG> may also reset italics.
379
380        Each  of  the functions added by XSI Curses has a parameter <EM>opts</EM>, which
381        X/Open Curses still (after more than twenty  years)  documents  as  re-
382        served for future use, saying that it should be <STRONG>NULL</STRONG>.  This implementa-
383        tion uses that parameter in ABI 6 for the functions which have a color-
384        pair parameter to support <EM>extended</EM> <EM>color</EM> <EM>pairs</EM>:
385
386        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   For  functions  which modify the color, e.g., <STRONG>wattr_set</STRONG>, if <EM>opts</EM> is
387            set it is treated as a pointer to <STRONG>int</STRONG>, and used to  set  the  color
388            pair instead of the <STRONG>short</STRONG> <EM>pair</EM> parameter.
389
390        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   For functions which retrieve the color, e.g., <STRONG>wattr_get</STRONG>, if <EM>opts</EM> is
391            set it is treated as a pointer to <STRONG>int</STRONG>, and  used  to  retrieve  the
392            color pair as an <STRONG>int</STRONG> value, in addition retrieving it via the stan-
393            dard pointer to <STRONG>short</STRONG> parameter.
394
395        The remaining functions which have <EM>opts</EM>, but do not  manipulate  color,
396        e.g., <STRONG>wattr_on</STRONG> and <STRONG>wattr_off</STRONG> are not used by this implementation except
397        to check that they are <STRONG>NULL</STRONG>.
398
399
400 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></H2><PRE>
401        These functions are supported in the XSI Curses standard, Issue 4.  The
402        standard  defined  the dedicated type for highlights, <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG>, which was
403        not defined in SVr4 curses.  The functions taking <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> arguments were
404        not supported under SVr4.
405
406        Very old versions of this library did not force an update of the screen
407        when changing the attributes.  Use <STRONG>touchwin</STRONG>  to  force  the  screen  to
408        match the updated attributes.
409
410        The  XSI  Curses standard states that whether the traditional functions
411        <STRONG>attron</STRONG>/<STRONG>attroff</STRONG>/<STRONG>attrset</STRONG> can manipulate attributes  other  than  <STRONG>A_BLINK</STRONG>,
412        <STRONG>A_BOLD</STRONG>,  <STRONG>A_DIM</STRONG>, <STRONG>A_REVERSE</STRONG>, <STRONG>A_STANDOUT</STRONG>, or <STRONG>A_UNDERLINE</STRONG> is "unspecified".
413        Under this implementation as well as SVr4 curses, these functions  cor-
414        rectly  manipulate  all  other  highlights (specifically, <STRONG>A_ALTCHARSET</STRONG>,
415        <STRONG>A_PROTECT</STRONG>, and <STRONG>A_INVIS</STRONG>).
416
417        XSI Curses added these entry points:
418
419               <STRONG>attr_get</STRONG>, <STRONG>attr_on</STRONG>, <STRONG>attr_off</STRONG>, <STRONG>attr_set</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattr_on</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattr_off</STRONG>, <STRONG>wat-</STRONG>
420               <STRONG>tr_get</STRONG>, <STRONG>wattr_set</STRONG>
421
422        The  new  functions are intended to work with a new series of highlight
423        macros prefixed with <STRONG>WA_</STRONG>.  The older macros have direct counterparts in
424        the newer set of names:
425
426               <EM>Name</EM>            <EM>Description</EM>
427               ------------------------------------------------------------
428               <STRONG>WA_NORMAL</STRONG>       Normal display (no highlight)
429               <STRONG>WA_STANDOUT</STRONG>     Best highlighting mode of the terminal.
430               <STRONG>WA_UNDERLINE</STRONG>    Underlining
431               <STRONG>WA_REVERSE</STRONG>      Reverse video
432               <STRONG>WA_BLINK</STRONG>        Blinking
433               <STRONG>WA_DIM</STRONG>          Half bright
434               <STRONG>WA_BOLD</STRONG>         Extra bright or bold
435               <STRONG>WA_ALTCHARSET</STRONG>   Alternate character set
436
437        XSI  curses  does not assign values to these symbols, nor does it state
438        whether or not they are related to the similarly-named A_NORMAL, etc.:
439
440        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The XSI curses standard specifies that each pair  of  corresponding
441            <STRONG>A_</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>WA_</STRONG>-using functions operates on the same current-highlight
442            information.
443
444        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   However, in some implementations, those symbols have unrelated val-
445            ues.
446
447            For example, the Solaris <EM>xpg4</EM> (X/Open) curses declares <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> to be
448            an unsigned short integer (16-bits), while <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> is a unsigned in-
449            teger  (32-bits).   The <STRONG>WA_</STRONG> symbols in this case are different from
450            the <STRONG>A_</STRONG> symbols because they are used for a smaller  datatype  which
451            does not represent <STRONG>A_CHARTEXT</STRONG> or <STRONG>A_COLOR</STRONG>.
452
453            In this implementation (as in many others), the values happen to be
454            the same because it simplifies copying information  between  <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>
455            and <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> variables.
456
457        The XSI standard extended conformance level adds new highlights <STRONG>A_HORI-</STRONG>
458        <STRONG>ZONTAL</STRONG>, <STRONG>A_LEFT</STRONG>, <STRONG>A_LOW</STRONG>, <STRONG>A_RIGHT</STRONG>, <STRONG>A_TOP</STRONG>,  <STRONG>A_VERTICAL</STRONG>  (and  corresponding
459        <STRONG>WA_</STRONG>  macros  for  each).  As of August 2013, no known terminal provides
460        these highlights (i.e., via the <STRONG>sgr1</STRONG> capability).
461
462
463 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></H2><PRE>
464        All routines return the integer <STRONG>OK</STRONG> on success, or <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> on failure.
465
466        X/Open does not define any error conditions.
467
468        This implementation
469
470        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   returns an error if the window pointer is null.
471
472        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   returns an error if the color pair parameter for <STRONG>wcolor_set</STRONG> is out-
473            side the range 0..COLOR_PAIRS-1.
474
475        <STRONG>o</STRONG>   does  not  return an error if either of the parameters of <STRONG>wattr_get</STRONG>
476            used for retrieving attribute or color-pair values is <STRONG>NULL</STRONG>.
477
478        Functions with a "mv" prefix first  perform  a  cursor  movement  using
479        <STRONG>wmove</STRONG>, and return an error if the position is outside the window, or if
480        the window pointer is null.
481
482
483 </PRE><H2><a name="h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></H2><PRE>
484        <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">curses(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>,
485        <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_variables.3x.html">curs_variables(3x)</A></STRONG>
486
487
488
489                                                                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
490 </PRE>
491 <div class="nav">
492 <ul>
493 <li><a href="#h2-NAME">NAME</a></li>
494 <li><a href="#h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></li>
495 <li><a href="#h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a>
496 <ul>
497 <li><a href="#h3-Window-attributes">Window attributes</a></li>
498 <li><a href="#h3-Legacy-window-attributes">Legacy window attributes</a></li>
499 <li><a href="#h3-Change-character-rendition">Change character rendition</a></li>
500 <li><a href="#h3-Change-window-color">Change window color</a></li>
501 <li><a href="#h3-Standout">Standout</a></li>
502 </ul>
503 </li>
504 <li><a href="#h2-VIDEO-ATTRIBUTES">VIDEO ATTRIBUTES</a></li>
505 <li><a href="#h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></li>
506 <li><a href="#h2-HISTORY">HISTORY</a></li>
507 <li><a href="#h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></li>
508 <li><a href="#h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></li>
509 <li><a href="#h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></li>
510 <li><a href="#h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></li>
511 </ul>
512 </div>
513 </BODY>
514 </HTML>