terminfo 5 File Formats

terminfo(5)                      File Formats                      terminfo(5)


       terminfo - terminal capability data base




       Terminfo  is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), rogue(1) and  libraries  such  as  curses(3x).
       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding  requirements  and  initialization  sequences.   This describes
       ncurses version 6.1 (patch 20190216).

Terminfo Entry Syntax

       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       o   Each field ends with a comma "," (embedded commas  may  be  escaped
           with a backslash or written as "\054").

       o   White space between fields is ignored.

       o   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first column.

       o   Newlines  and  leading  whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used for
           formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from  parsed

           The  infocmp  -f and -W options rely on this to format if-then-else
           expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The resulting  for-
           matted terminal description can be read by tic.

       o   The  first  field for each terminal gives the names which are known
           for the terminal, separated by "|" characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the termi-
           nal  (its  primary name), the last name given should be a long name
           fully identifying the terminal (see longname(3x)), and  all  others
           are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal name.

           X/Open  Curses  advises  that  all  names but the last should be in
           lower case and contain no blanks; the last name  may  well  contain
           upper case and blanks for readability.

           This  implementation  is not so strict; it allows mixed case in the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded blanks,
           it  allows  that  to  be both an alias and a verbose name (but will
           warn about this ambiguity).

       o   Lines beginning with a "#" in the first column are treated as  com-

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo
           and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move comments  so  they  occur
           only between entries.

       Terminal  names  (except  for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware mak-
       ing  up the terminal should have a root name, thus "hp2621".  This name
       should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user
       preferences,  should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode suf-
       fix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The following
       suffixes should be used where possible:

            Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
            -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
            -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
            -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
            -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
            -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
            -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
            -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
            -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
            -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
            -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
            -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
            -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
            -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

Terminfo Capabilities Syntax

       The  terminfo  entry  consists  of several capabilities, i.e., features
       that the terminal has, or methods for exercising  the  terminal's  fea-

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry), there
       should be one or more capability fields.  These are boolean, numeric or
       string names with corresponding values:

       o   Boolean  capabilities  are  true  when  present, false when absent.
           There is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       o   Numeric capabilities  have  a  "#"  following  the  name,  then  an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       o   String  capabilities  have a "=" following the name, then an string
           of characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just  as  the
           fields  comprising  a  terminal  entry  can  be split into multiple
           lines.  While blanks between fields are  ignored,  blanks  embedded
           within  a string value are retained, except for leading blanks on a

       Any capability can be canceled,  i.e.,  suppressed  from  the  terminal
       entry, by following its name with "@" rather than a capability value.

Similar Terminals

       If  there  are  two  very  similar  terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the  base)  with  certain  excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability use can
       be given with the name of the base terminal:

       o   The capabilities given before use override those in the  base  type
           named by use.

       o   If  there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse
           order.  That is, the rightmost use reference  is  processed  first,
           then the one to its left, and so forth.

       o   Capabilities  given  explicitly in the entry override those brought
           in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref-
       erence  that  imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example, the

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence  does  not  turn  on the function key labels when in visual mode.
       This is useful for different modes for a  terminal,  or  for  different
       user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities, which have
       the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the  using  terminal

Predefined Capabilities

       The  following  is  a  complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to  terminfo-using  code.   In
       each line of the table,

       The  variable  is  the  name  by  which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and  is
       used  by  a  person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now  superseded  by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
       names).  Semantics are also intended to match those of  the  specifica-

       The  termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                  Booleans            name      Code
          auto_left_margin            bw        bw     cub1 wraps from col-
                                                       umn 0 to last column
          auto_right_margin           am        am     terminal has auto-
                                                       matic margins
          back_color_erase            bce       ut     screen erased with
                                                       background color
          can_change                  ccc       cc     terminal can re-
                                                       define existing col-
          ceol_standout_glitch        xhp       xs     standout not erased
                                                       by overwriting (hp)
          col_addr_glitch             xhpa      YA     only positive motion
                                                       for hpa/mhpa caps

          cpi_changes_res             cpix      YF     changing character
                                                       pitch changes reso-
          cr_cancels_micro_mode       crxm      YB     using cr turns off
                                                       micro mode
          dest_tabs_magic_smso        xt        xt     tabs destructive,
                                                       magic so char
          eat_newline_glitch          xenl      xn     newline ignored
                                                       after 80 cols (con-
          erase_overstrike            eo        eo     can erase over-
                                                       strikes with a blank
          generic_type                gn        gn     generic line type
          hard_copy                   hc        hc     hardcopy terminal
          hard_cursor                 chts      HC     cursor is hard to
          has_meta_key                km        km     Has a meta key
                                                       (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
          has_print_wheel             daisy     YC     printer needs opera-
                                                       tor to change char-
                                                       acter set
          has_status_line             hs        hs     has extra status
          hue_lightness_saturation    hls       hl     terminal uses only
                                                       HLS color notation
          insert_null_glitch          in        in     insert mode distin-
                                                       guishes nulls
          lpi_changes_res             lpix      YG     changing line pitch
                                                       changes resolution
          memory_above                da        da     display may be
                                                       retained above the
          memory_below                db        db     display may be
                                                       retained below the
          move_insert_mode            mir       mi     safe to move while
                                                       in insert mode
          move_standout_mode          msgr      ms     safe to move while
                                                       in standout mode
          needs_xon_xoff              nxon      nx     padding will not
                                                       work, xon/xoff
          no_esc_ctlc                 xsb       xb     beehive (f1=escape,
                                                       f2=ctrl C)
          no_pad_char                 npc       NP     pad character does
                                                       not exist
          non_dest_scroll_region      ndscr     ND     scrolling region is
          non_rev_rmcup               nrrmc     NR     smcup does not
                                                       reverse rmcup
          over_strike                 os        os     terminal can over-
          prtr_silent                 mc5i      5i     printer will not
                                                       echo on screen
          row_addr_glitch             xvpa      YD     only positive motion
                                                       for vpa/mvpa caps
          semi_auto_right_margin      sam       YE     printing in last
                                                       column causes cr
          status_line_esc_ok          eslok     es     escape can be used
                                                       on the status line
          tilde_glitch                hz        hz     cannot print ~'s

          transparent_underline       ul        ul     underline character
          xon_xoff                    xon       xo     terminal uses
                                                       xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   Numeric            name      Code
          columns                     cols      co     number of columns in
                                                       a line
          init_tabs                   it        it     tabs initially every
                                                       # spaces
          label_height                lh        lh     rows in each label
          label_width                 lw        lw     columns in each
          lines                       lines     li     number of lines on
                                                       screen or page
          lines_of_memory             lm        lm     lines of memory if >
                                                       line. 0 means varies
          magic_cookie_glitch         xmc       sg     number of blank
                                                       characters left by
                                                       smso or rmso
          max_attributes              ma        ma     maximum combined
                                                       attributes terminal
                                                       can handle
          max_colors                  colors    Co     maximum number of
                                                       colors on screen
          max_pairs                   pairs     pa     maximum number of
                                                       color-pairs on the
          maximum_windows             wnum      MW     maximum number of
                                                       definable windows
          no_color_video              ncv       NC     video attributes
                                                       that cannot be used
                                                       with colors
          num_labels                  nlab      Nl     number of labels on
          padding_baud_rate           pb        pb     lowest baud rate
                                                       where padding needed
          virtual_terminal            vt        vt     virtual terminal
                                                       number (CB/unix)
          width_status_line           wsl       ws     number of columns in
                                                       status line

       The following numeric capabilities  are  present  in  the  SVr4.0  term
       structure,  but  are  not yet documented in the man page.  They came in
       with SVr4's printer support.

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   Numeric            name      Code
          bit_image_entwining         bitwin    Yo     number of passes for
                                                       each bit-image row
          bit_image_type              bitype    Yp     type of bit-image
          buffer_capacity             bufsz     Ya     numbers of bytes
                                                       buffered before
          buttons                     btns      BT     number of buttons on
          dot_horz_spacing            spinh     Yc     spacing of dots hor-
                                                       izontally in dots
                                                       per inch

          dot_vert_spacing            spinv     Yb     spacing of pins ver-
                                                       tically in pins per
          max_micro_address           maddr     Yd     maximum value in
          max_micro_jump              mjump     Ye     maximum value in
          micro_col_size              mcs       Yf     character step size
                                                       when in micro mode
          micro_line_size             mls       Yg     line step size when
                                                       in micro mode
          number_of_pins              npins     Yh     numbers of pins in
          output_res_char             orc       Yi     horizontal resolu-
                                                       tion in units per
          output_res_horz_inch        orhi      Yk     horizontal resolu-
                                                       tion in units per
          output_res_line             orl       Yj     vertical resolution
                                                       in units per line
          output_res_vert_inch        orvi      Yl     vertical resolution
                                                       in units per inch
          print_rate                  cps       Ym     print rate in char-
                                                       acters per second
          wide_char_size              widcs     Yn     character step size
                                                       when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   String             name      Code
          acs_chars                   acsc      ac     graphics charset
                                                       pairs, based on
          back_tab                    cbt       bt     back tab (P)
          bell                        bel       bl     audible signal
                                                       (bell) (P)
          carriage_return             cr        cr     carriage return (P*)
          change_char_pitch           cpi       ZA     Change number of
                                                       characters per inch
                                                       to #1
          change_line_pitch           lpi       ZB     Change number of
                                                       lines per inch to #1
          change_res_horz             chr       ZC     Change horizontal
                                                       resolution to #1
          change_res_vert             cvr       ZD     Change vertical res-
                                                       olution to #1
          change_scroll_region        csr       cs     change region to
                                                       line #1 to line #2
          char_padding                rmp       rP     like ip but when in
                                                       insert mode
          clear_all_tabs              tbc       ct     clear all tab stops
          clear_margins               mgc       MC     clear right and left
                                                       soft margins
          clear_screen                clear     cl     clear screen and
                                                       home cursor (P*)
          clr_bol                     el1       cb     Clear to beginning
                                                       of line

          clr_eol                     el        ce     clear to end of line
          clr_eos                     ed        cd     clear to end of
                                                       screen (P*)
          column_address              hpa       ch     horizontal position
                                                       #1, absolute (P)
          command_character           cmdch     CC     terminal settable
                                                       cmd character in
                                                       prototype !?
          create_window               cwin      CW     define a window #1
                                                       from #2,#3 to #4,#5
          cursor_address              cup       cm     move to row #1 col-
                                                       umns #2
          cursor_down                 cud1      do     down one line
          cursor_home                 home      ho     home cursor (if no
          cursor_invisible            civis     vi     make cursor invisi-
          cursor_left                 cub1      le     move left one space
          cursor_mem_address          mrcup     CM     memory relative cur-
                                                       sor addressing, move
                                                       to row #1 columns #2
          cursor_normal               cnorm     ve     make cursor appear
                                                       normal (undo
          cursor_right                cuf1      nd     non-destructive
                                                       space (move right
                                                       one space)
          cursor_to_ll                ll        ll     last line, first
                                                       column (if no cup)
          cursor_up                   cuu1      up     up one line
          cursor_visible              cvvis     vs     make cursor very
          define_char                 defc      ZE     Define a character
                                                       #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                       descender #3
          delete_character            dch1      dc     delete character
          delete_line                 dl1       dl     delete line (P*)
          dial_phone                  dial      DI     dial number #1
          dis_status_line             dsl       ds     disable status line
          display_clock               dclk      DK     display clock
          down_half_line              hd        hd     half a line down
          ena_acs                     enacs     eA     enable alternate
                                                       char set
          enter_alt_charset_mode      smacs     as     start alternate
                                                       character set (P)
          enter_am_mode               smam      SA     turn on automatic
          enter_blink_mode            blink     mb     turn on blinking
          enter_bold_mode             bold      md     turn on bold (extra
                                                       bright) mode
          enter_ca_mode               smcup     ti     string to start pro-
                                                       grams using cup
          enter_delete_mode           smdc      dm     enter delete mode
          enter_dim_mode              dim       mh     turn on half-bright
          enter_doublewide_mode       swidm     ZF     Enter double-wide
          enter_draft_quality         sdrfq     ZG     Enter draft-quality
          enter_insert_mode           smir      im     enter insert mode
          enter_italics_mode          sitm      ZH     Enter italic mode
          enter_leftward_mode         slm       ZI     Start leftward car-
                                                       riage motion

          enter_micro_mode            smicm     ZJ     Start micro-motion
          enter_near_letter_quality   snlq      ZK     Enter NLQ mode
          enter_normal_quality        snrmq     ZL     Enter normal-quality
          enter_protected_mode        prot      mp     turn on protected
          enter_reverse_mode          rev       mr     turn on reverse
                                                       video mode
          enter_secure_mode           invis     mk     turn on blank mode
                                                       (characters invisi-
          enter_shadow_mode           sshm      ZM     Enter shadow-print
          enter_standout_mode         smso      so     begin standout mode
          enter_subscript_mode        ssubm     ZN     Enter subscript mode
          enter_superscript_mode      ssupm     ZO     Enter superscript
          enter_underline_mode        smul      us     begin underline mode
          enter_upward_mode           sum       ZP     Start upward car-
                                                       riage motion
          enter_xon_mode              smxon     SX     turn on xon/xoff
          erase_chars                 ech       ec     erase #1 characters
          exit_alt_charset_mode       rmacs     ae     end alternate char-
                                                       acter set (P)
          exit_am_mode                rmam      RA     turn off automatic
          exit_attribute_mode         sgr0      me     turn off all
          exit_ca_mode                rmcup     te     strings to end pro-
                                                       grams using cup
          exit_delete_mode            rmdc      ed     end delete mode
          exit_doublewide_mode        rwidm     ZQ     End double-wide mode
          exit_insert_mode            rmir      ei     exit insert mode
          exit_italics_mode           ritm      ZR     End italic mode
          exit_leftward_mode          rlm       ZS     End left-motion mode
          exit_micro_mode             rmicm     ZT     End micro-motion
          exit_shadow_mode            rshm      ZU     End shadow-print
          exit_standout_mode          rmso      se     exit standout mode
          exit_subscript_mode         rsubm     ZV     End subscript mode
          exit_superscript_mode       rsupm     ZW     End superscript mode
          exit_underline_mode         rmul      ue     exit underline mode
          exit_upward_mode            rum       ZX     End reverse charac-
                                                       ter motion
          exit_xon_mode               rmxon     RX     turn off xon/xoff
          fixed_pause                 pause     PA     pause for 2-3 sec-
          flash_hook                  hook      fh     flash switch hook
          flash_screen                flash     vb     visible bell (may
                                                       not move cursor)
          form_feed                   ff        ff     hardcopy terminal
                                                       page eject (P*)
          from_status_line            fsl       fs     return from status
          goto_window                 wingo     WG     go to window #1
          hangup                      hup       HU     hang-up phone
          init_1string                is1       i1     initialization
          init_2string                is2       is     initialization

          init_3string                is3       i3     initialization
          init_file                   if        if     name of initializa-
                                                       tion file
          init_prog                   iprog     iP     path name of program
                                                       for initialization
          initialize_color            initc     Ic     initialize color #1
                                                       to (#2,#3,#4)
          initialize_pair             initp     Ip     Initialize color
                                                       pair #1 to
          insert_character            ich1      ic     insert character (P)
          insert_line                 il1       al     insert line (P*)
          insert_padding              ip        ip     insert padding after
                                                       inserted character
          key_a1                      ka1       K1     upper left of keypad
          key_a3                      ka3       K3     upper right of key-
          key_b2                      kb2       K2     center of keypad
          key_backspace               kbs       kb     backspace key
          key_beg                     kbeg      @1     begin key
          key_btab                    kcbt      kB     back-tab key
          key_c1                      kc1       K4     lower left of keypad
          key_c3                      kc3       K5     lower right of key-
          key_cancel                  kcan      @2     cancel key
          key_catab                   ktbc      ka     clear-all-tabs key
          key_clear                   kclr      kC     clear-screen or
                                                       erase key
          key_close                   kclo      @3     close key
          key_command                 kcmd      @4     command key
          key_copy                    kcpy      @5     copy key
          key_create                  kcrt      @6     create key
          key_ctab                    kctab     kt     clear-tab key
          key_dc                      kdch1     kD     delete-character key
          key_dl                      kdl1      kL     delete-line key
          key_down                    kcud1     kd     down-arrow key
          key_eic                     krmir     kM     sent by rmir or smir
                                                       in insert mode
          key_end                     kend      @7     end key
          key_enter                   kent      @8     enter/send key
          key_eol                     kel       kE     clear-to-end-of-line
          key_eos                     ked       kS     clear-to-end-of-
                                                       screen key
          key_exit                    kext      @9     exit key
          key_f0                      kf0       k0     F0 function key
          key_f1                      kf1       k1     F1 function key
          key_f10                     kf10      k;     F10 function key
          key_f11                     kf11      F1     F11 function key
          key_f12                     kf12      F2     F12 function key
          key_f13                     kf13      F3     F13 function key
          key_f14                     kf14      F4     F14 function key
          key_f15                     kf15      F5     F15 function key
          key_f16                     kf16      F6     F16 function key
          key_f17                     kf17      F7     F17 function key
          key_f18                     kf18      F8     F18 function key
          key_f19                     kf19      F9     F19 function key
          key_f2                      kf2       k2     F2 function key
          key_f20                     kf20      FA     F20 function key
          key_f21                     kf21      FB     F21 function key
          key_f22                     kf22      FC     F22 function key
          key_f23                     kf23      FD     F23 function key
          key_f24                     kf24      FE     F24 function key

          key_f25                     kf25      FF     F25 function key
          key_f26                     kf26      FG     F26 function key
          key_f27                     kf27      FH     F27 function key
          key_f28                     kf28      FI     F28 function key
          key_f29                     kf29      FJ     F29 function key
          key_f3                      kf3       k3     F3 function key
          key_f30                     kf30      FK     F30 function key
          key_f31                     kf31      FL     F31 function key
          key_f32                     kf32      FM     F32 function key
          key_f33                     kf33      FN     F33 function key
          key_f34                     kf34      FO     F34 function key
          key_f35                     kf35      FP     F35 function key
          key_f36                     kf36      FQ     F36 function key
          key_f37                     kf37      FR     F37 function key
          key_f38                     kf38      FS     F38 function key
          key_f39                     kf39      FT     F39 function key
          key_f4                      kf4       k4     F4 function key
          key_f40                     kf40      FU     F40 function key
          key_f41                     kf41      FV     F41 function key
          key_f42                     kf42      FW     F42 function key
          key_f43                     kf43      FX     F43 function key
          key_f44                     kf44      FY     F44 function key
          key_f45                     kf45      FZ     F45 function key
          key_f46                     kf46      Fa     F46 function key
          key_f47                     kf47      Fb     F47 function key
          key_f48                     kf48      Fc     F48 function key
          key_f49                     kf49      Fd     F49 function key
          key_f5                      kf5       k5     F5 function key
          key_f50                     kf50      Fe     F50 function key
          key_f51                     kf51      Ff     F51 function key
          key_f52                     kf52      Fg     F52 function key
          key_f53                     kf53      Fh     F53 function key
          key_f54                     kf54      Fi     F54 function key
          key_f55                     kf55      Fj     F55 function key
          key_f56                     kf56      Fk     F56 function key
          key_f57                     kf57      Fl     F57 function key
          key_f58                     kf58      Fm     F58 function key
          key_f59                     kf59      Fn     F59 function key
          key_f6                      kf6       k6     F6 function key
          key_f60                     kf60      Fo     F60 function key
          key_f61                     kf61      Fp     F61 function key
          key_f62                     kf62      Fq     F62 function key
          key_f63                     kf63      Fr     F63 function key
          key_f7                      kf7       k7     F7 function key
          key_f8                      kf8       k8     F8 function key
          key_f9                      kf9       k9     F9 function key
          key_find                    kfnd      @0     find key
          key_help                    khlp      %1     help key
          key_home                    khome     kh     home key
          key_ic                      kich1     kI     insert-character key
          key_il                      kil1      kA     insert-line key
          key_left                    kcub1     kl     left-arrow key
          key_ll                      kll       kH     lower-left key (home
          key_mark                    kmrk      %2     mark key
          key_message                 kmsg      %3     message key
          key_move                    kmov      %4     move key
          key_next                    knxt      %5     next key
          key_npage                   knp       kN     next-page key
          key_open                    kopn      %6     open key
          key_options                 kopt      %7     options key
          key_ppage                   kpp       kP     previous-page key
          key_previous                kprv      %8     previous key
          key_print                   kprt      %9     print key
          key_redo                    krdo      %0     redo key

          key_reference               kref      &1     reference key
          key_refresh                 krfr      &2     refresh key
          key_replace                 krpl      &3     replace key
          key_restart                 krst      &4     restart key
          key_resume                  kres      &5     resume key
          key_right                   kcuf1     kr     right-arrow key
          key_save                    ksav      &6     save key
          key_sbeg                    kBEG      &9     shifted begin key
          key_scancel                 kCAN      &0     shifted cancel key
          key_scommand                kCMD      *1     shifted command key
          key_scopy                   kCPY      *2     shifted copy key
          key_screate                 kCRT      *3     shifted create key
          key_sdc                     kDC       *4     shifted delete-char-
                                                       acter key
          key_sdl                     kDL       *5     shifted delete-line
          key_select                  kslt      *6     select key
          key_send                    kEND      *7     shifted end key
          key_seol                    kEOL      *8     shifted clear-to-
                                                       end-of-line key
          key_sexit                   kEXT      *9     shifted exit key
          key_sf                      kind      kF     scroll-forward key
          key_sfind                   kFND      *0     shifted find key
          key_shelp                   kHLP      #1     shifted help key
          key_shome                   kHOM      #2     shifted home key
          key_sic                     kIC       #3     shifted insert-char-
                                                       acter key
          key_sleft                   kLFT      #4     shifted left-arrow
          key_smessage                kMSG      %a     shifted message key
          key_smove                   kMOV      %b     shifted move key
          key_snext                   kNXT      %c     shifted next key
          key_soptions                kOPT      %d     shifted options key
          key_sprevious               kPRV      %e     shifted previous key
          key_sprint                  kPRT      %f     shifted print key
          key_sr                      kri       kR     scroll-backward key
          key_sredo                   kRDO      %g     shifted redo key
          key_sreplace                kRPL      %h     shifted replace key
          key_sright                  kRIT      %i     shifted right-arrow
          key_srsume                  kRES      %j     shifted resume key
          key_ssave                   kSAV      !1     shifted save key
          key_ssuspend                kSPD      !2     shifted suspend key
          key_stab                    khts      kT     set-tab key
          key_sundo                   kUND      !3     shifted undo key
          key_suspend                 kspd      &7     suspend key
          key_undo                    kund      &8     undo key
          key_up                      kcuu1     ku     up-arrow key
          keypad_local                rmkx      ke     leave 'key-
                                                       board_transmit' mode
          keypad_xmit                 smkx      ks     enter 'key-
                                                       board_transmit' mode
          lab_f0                      lf0       l0     label on function
                                                       key f0 if not f0
          lab_f1                      lf1       l1     label on function
                                                       key f1 if not f1
          lab_f10                     lf10      la     label on function
                                                       key f10 if not f10
          lab_f2                      lf2       l2     label on function
                                                       key f2 if not f2
          lab_f3                      lf3       l3     label on function
                                                       key f3 if not f3
          lab_f4                      lf4       l4     label on function
                                                       key f4 if not f4

          lab_f5                      lf5       l5     label on function
                                                       key f5 if not f5
          lab_f6                      lf6       l6     label on function
                                                       key f6 if not f6
          lab_f7                      lf7       l7     label on function
                                                       key f7 if not f7
          lab_f8                      lf8       l8     label on function
                                                       key f8 if not f8
          lab_f9                      lf9       l9     label on function
                                                       key f9 if not f9
          label_format                fln       Lf     label format
          label_off                   rmln      LF     turn off soft labels
          label_on                    smln      LO     turn on soft labels
          meta_off                    rmm       mo     turn off meta mode
          meta_on                     smm       mm     turn on meta mode
                                                       (8th-bit on)
          micro_column_address        mhpa      ZY     Like column_address
                                                       in micro mode
          micro_down                  mcud1     ZZ     Like cursor_down in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_left                  mcub1     Za     Like cursor_left in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_right                 mcuf1     Zb     Like cursor_right in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_row_address           mvpa      Zc     Like row_address #1
                                                       in micro mode
          micro_up                    mcuu1     Zd     Like cursor_up in
                                                       micro mode
          newline                     nel       nw     newline (behave like
                                                       cr followed by lf)
          order_of_pins               porder    Ze     Match software bits
                                                       to print-head pins
          orig_colors                 oc        oc     Set all color pairs
                                                       to the original ones
          orig_pair                   op        op     Set default pair to
                                                       its original value
          pad_char                    pad       pc     padding char
                                                       (instead of null)
          parm_dch                    dch       DC     delete #1 characters
          parm_delete_line            dl        DL     delete #1 lines (P*)
          parm_down_cursor            cud       DO     down #1 lines (P*)
          parm_down_micro             mcud      Zf     Like parm_down_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode
          parm_ich                    ich       IC     insert #1 characters
          parm_index                  indn      SF     scroll forward #1
                                                       lines (P)
          parm_insert_line            il        AL     insert #1 lines (P*)
          parm_left_cursor            cub       LE     move #1 characters
                                                       to the left (P)
          parm_left_micro             mcub      Zg     Like parm_left_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode
          parm_right_cursor           cuf       RI     move #1 characters
                                                       to the right (P*)
          parm_right_micro            mcuf      Zh     Like parm_right_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode
          parm_rindex                 rin       SR     scroll back #1 lines
          parm_up_cursor              cuu       UP     up #1 lines (P*)
          parm_up_micro               mcuu      Zi     Like parm_up_cursor
                                                       in micro mode
          pkey_key                    pfkey     pk     program function key
                                                       #1 to type string #2

          pkey_local                  pfloc     pl     program function key
                                                       #1 to execute string
          pkey_xmit                   pfx       px     program function key
                                                       #1 to transmit
                                                       string #2
          plab_norm                   pln       pn     program label #1 to
                                                       show string #2
          print_screen                mc0       ps     print contents of
          prtr_non                    mc5p      pO     turn on printer for
                                                       #1 bytes
          prtr_off                    mc4       pf     turn off printer
          prtr_on                     mc5       po     turn on printer
          pulse                       pulse     PU     select pulse dialing
          quick_dial                  qdial     QD     dial number #1 with-
                                                       out checking
          remove_clock                rmclk     RC     remove clock
          repeat_char                 rep       rp     repeat char #1 #2
                                                       times (P*)
          req_for_input               rfi       RF     send next input char
                                                       (for ptys)
          reset_1string               rs1       r1     reset string
          reset_2string               rs2       r2     reset string
          reset_3string               rs3       r3     reset string
          reset_file                  rf        rf     name of reset file
          restore_cursor              rc        rc     restore cursor to
                                                       position of last
          row_address                 vpa       cv     vertical position #1
                                                       absolute (P)
          save_cursor                 sc        sc     save current cursor
                                                       position (P)
          scroll_forward              ind       sf     scroll text up (P)
          scroll_reverse              ri        sr     scroll text down (P)
          select_char_set             scs       Zj     Select character
                                                       set, #1
          set_attributes              sgr       sa     define video
                                                       attributes #1-#9
          set_background              setb      Sb     Set background color
          set_bottom_margin           smgb      Zk     Set bottom margin at
                                                       current line
          set_bottom_margin_parm      smgbp     Zl     Set bottom margin at
                                                       line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                       is not given) #2
                                                       lines from bottom
          set_clock                   sclk      SC     set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                       mins #3 secs
          set_color_pair              scp       sp     Set current color
                                                       pair to #1
          set_foreground              setf      Sf     Set foreground color
          set_left_margin             smgl      ML     set left soft margin
                                                       at current col-
                                                       umn.     See smgl.
                                                       (ML is not in BSD
          set_left_margin_parm        smglp     Zm     Set left (right)
                                                       margin at column #1
          set_right_margin            smgr      MR     set right soft mar-
                                                       gin at current col-

          set_right_margin_parm       smgrp     Zn     Set right margin at
                                                       column #1
          set_tab                     hts       st     set a tab in every
                                                       row, current columns
          set_top_margin              smgt      Zo     Set top margin at
                                                       current line
          set_top_margin_parm         smgtp     Zp     Set top (bottom)
                                                       margin at row #1
          set_window                  wind      wi     current window is
                                                       lines #1-#2 cols
          start_bit_image             sbim      Zq     Start printing bit
                                                       image graphics
          start_char_set_def          scsd      Zr     Start character set
                                                       definition #1, with
                                                       #2 characters in the
          stop_bit_image              rbim      Zs     Stop printing bit
                                                       image graphics
          stop_char_set_def           rcsd      Zt     End definition of
                                                       character set #1
          subscript_characters        subcs     Zu     List of subscript-
                                                       able characters
          superscript_characters      supcs     Zv     List of superscript-
                                                       able characters
          tab                         ht        ta     tab to next 8-space
                                                       hardware tab stop
          these_cause_cr              docr      Zw     Printing any of
                                                       these characters
                                                       causes CR
          to_status_line              tsl       ts     move to status line,
                                                       column #1
          tone                        tone      TO     select touch tone
          underline_char              uc        uc     underline char and
                                                       move past it
          up_half_line                hu        hu     half a line up
          user0                       u0        u0     User string #0
          user1                       u1        u1     User string #1
          user2                       u2        u2     User string #2
          user3                       u3        u3     User string #3
          user4                       u4        u4     User string #4
          user5                       u5        u5     User string #5
          user6                       u6        u6     User string #6
          user7                       u7        u7     User string #7
          user8                       u8        u8     User string #8
          user9                       u9        u9     User string #9
          wait_tone                   wait      WA     wait for dial-tone
          xoff_character              xoffc     XF     XOFF character
          xon_character               xonc      XN     XON character
          zero_motion                 zerom     Zx     No motion for subse-
                                                       quent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented in the man page.

                  Variable            Cap-       TCap      Description
                   String             name       Code
          alt_scancode_esc            scesa      S8     Alternate escape
                                                        for scancode emu-
          bit_image_carriage_return   bicr       Yv     Move to beginning
                                                        of same row

          bit_image_newline           binel      Zz     Move to next row
                                                        of the bit image
          bit_image_repeat            birep      Xy     Repeat bit image
                                                        cell #1 #2 times
          char_set_names              csnm       Zy     Produce #1'th item
                                                        from list of char-
                                                        acter set names
          code_set_init               csin       ci     Init sequence for
                                                        multiple codesets
          color_names                 colornm    Yw     Give name for
                                                        color #1
          define_bit_image_region     defbi      Yx     Define rectangular
                                                        bit image region
          device_type                 devt       dv     Indicate lan-
                                                        guage/codeset sup-
          display_pc_char             dispc      S1     Display PC charac-
                                                        ter #1
          end_bit_image_region        endbi      Yy     End a bit-image
          enter_pc_charset_mode       smpch      S2     Enter PC character
                                                        display mode
          enter_scancode_mode         smsc       S4     Enter PC scancode
          exit_pc_charset_mode        rmpch      S3     Exit PC character
                                                        display mode
          exit_scancode_mode          rmsc       S5     Exit PC scancode
          get_mouse                   getm       Gm     Curses should get
                                                        button events,
                                                        parameter #1 not
          key_mouse                   kmous      Km     Mouse event has
          mouse_info                  minfo      Mi     Mouse status
          pc_term_options             pctrm      S6     PC terminal
          pkey_plab                   pfxl       xl     Program function
                                                        key #1 to type
                                                        string #2 and show
                                                        string #3
          req_mouse_pos               reqmp      RQ     Request mouse
          scancode_escape             scesc      S7     Escape for scan-
                                                        code emulation
          set0_des_seq                s0ds       s0     Shift to codeset 0
                                                        (EUC set 0, ASCII)
          set1_des_seq                s1ds       s1     Shift to codeset 1
          set2_des_seq                s2ds       s2     Shift to codeset 2
          set3_des_seq                s3ds       s3     Shift to codeset 3
          set_a_background            setab      AB     Set background
                                                        color to #1, using
                                                        ANSI escape
          set_a_foreground            setaf      AF     Set foreground
                                                        color to #1, using
                                                        ANSI escape
          set_color_band              setcolor   Yz     Change to ribbon
                                                        color #1
          set_lr_margin               smglr      ML     Set both left and
                                                        right margins to
                                                        #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                        not in BSD term-

          set_page_length             slines     YZ     Set page length to
                                                        #1 lines
          set_tb_margin               smgtb      MT     Sets both top and
                                                        bottom margins to
                                                        #1, #2

        The XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They  were
        used  in  some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5
        and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names for  them  are
        invented.   According to the XSI Curses standard, they have no termcap
        names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may  not  be
        binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   String             name      Code
          enter_horizontal_hl_mode    ehhlm     Xh     Enter horizontal
                                                       highlight mode
          enter_left_hl_mode          elhlm     Xl     Enter left highlight
          enter_low_hl_mode           elohlm    Xo     Enter low highlight
          enter_right_hl_mode         erhlm     Xr     Enter right high-
                                                       light mode
          enter_top_hl_mode           ethlm     Xt     Enter top highlight
          enter_vertical_hl_mode      evhlm     Xv     Enter vertical high-
                                                       light mode
          set_a_attributes            sgr1      sA     Define second set of
                                                       video attributes
          set_pglen_inch              slength   YI     Set page length to
                                                       #1 hundredth of an
                                                       inch (some implemen-
                                                       tations use sL for

User-Defined Capabilities

       The  preceding  section  listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal
       with some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly  never)
       produced.   Occasionally  there are special features of newer terminals
       which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the  predefined

       ncurses  addresses  this  limitation by allowing user-defined capabili-
       ties.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x option for this pur-
       pose.  When -x is set, tic treats unknown capabilities as user-defined.
       That is, if tic encounters a capability name which it does  not  recog-
       nize,  it  infers  its type (boolean, number or string) from the syntax
       and  makes  an  extended  table  entry  for   that   capability.    The
       use_extended_names(3x)  function  makes  this information conditionally
       available to applications.  The ncurses library provides the data leav-
       ing most of the behavior to applications:

       o   User-defined  capability  strings  whose  name  begins with "k" are
           treated as function keys.

       o   The types (boolean,  number,  string)  determined  by  tic  can  be
           inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       o   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability
           is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a prede-
       fined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the capa-
       bilities defined by terminfo implementations.  As a rule,  user-defined
       capabilities intended for use by termcap applications should be limited
       to booleans and numbers to avoid  running  past  the  1023  byte  limit
       assumed by termcap implementations and their applications.  In particu-
       lar, providing extended sets of function keys  (past  the  60  numbered
       keys  and  the  handful  of  special named keys) is best done using the
       longer names available using terminfo.

A Sample Entry

       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen-
       tative  of  what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at  the
       beginning  of  each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with "#".  Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

       o   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some par-
           ticular feature,

       o   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of
           particular delays, and

       o   string capabilities, which give a sequence which  can  be  used  to
           perform particular terminal operations.

Types of Capabilities

       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return  and  line-
       feed  when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.   Numeric  capabilities
       are  followed  by  the  character  "#" and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value  "80" for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,  string  valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character  code,  an  "=",  and  then  a
       string ending at the next following ",".

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding of characters there:

       o   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       o   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       o   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s


             newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space,


       X/Open Curses does not say what "appropriate x" might be.  In practice,
       that  is a printable ASCII graphic character.  The special case "^?" is
       interpreted as DEL (127).  In all other cases, the character  value  is
       AND'd  with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in the range 0 through

       Other escapes include

       o   \^ for ^,

       o   \\ for \,

       o   \, for comma,

       o   \: for :,

       o   and \0 for null.

           \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
           as  a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.
           See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain  binary  compatibility  of
           the  compiled  terminfo files with other implementations, e.g., the
           SVr4 systems, which document this.   Compiled  terminfo  files  use
           null-terminated  strings,  with  no  lengths.  Modifying this would
           require a new binary format, which would not work with other imple-

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A  delay  in  milliseconds  may appear anywhere in a string capability,
       enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>,  and  padding  characters
       are supplied by tputs(3x) to provide this delay.

       o   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of preci-
           sion; it may be followed by suffixes "*" or "/" or both.

       o   A "*" indicates that the padding required is  proportional  to  the
           number  of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is
           the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In  the  case  of  insert
           character, the factor is still the number of lines affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon capability;
           it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.

       o   A "/" suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and  forces  a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for which
           xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To  do  this,
       put  a  period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.

Fetching Compiled Descriptions

       The ncurses library  searches  for  terminal  descriptions  in  several
       places.   It  uses only the first description found.  The library has a
       compiled-in list of places to search which can be overridden  by  envi-
       ronment  variables.   Before  starting  to  search,  ncurses eliminates
       duplicates in its search list.

       o   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is  interpreted  as
           the pathname of a directory containing the compiled description you
           are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       o   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the  directory
           $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

       o   Next,  if  the  environment  variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses
           will interpret the contents of that variable as a  list  of  colon-
           separated directories (or database files) to be searched.

           An  empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with
           a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the  system
           location /usr/share/terminfo.

       o   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           o   a    list    of    directories   (/usr/local/ncurses/share/ter-
               minfo:/usr/share/terminfo), and

           o   the system terminfo directory,  /usr/share/terminfo  (the  com-
               piled-in default).

Preparing Descriptions

       We  now  outline  how  to  prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description  is  by  imitating  the
       description  of  a  similar  terminal  in  terminfo  and  to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented  program to check that they are correct.  Be aware that
       a very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability  of  the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal  manufacturer
       did  not  document  it)  a  severe test is to edit a large file at 9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       "u" key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

Basic Capabilities

       The number of columns on each line for the terminal  is  given  by  the
       cols  numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number of
       lines on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the  terminal
       wraps  around  to  the  beginning  of the next line when it reaches the
       right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If  the  terminal
       can  clear  its  screen,  leaving the cursor in the home position, then
       this is given by the clear string capability.  If  the  terminal  over-
       strikes  (rather  than  clearing  a position when a character is struck
       over) then it should have the os capability.   If  the  terminal  is  a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies to storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010  series,  as
       well  as  hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to move the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this  will  be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code to pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace)  that  capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly, codes
       to move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1,  cuu1,  and
       cud1.   These  local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass
       over, for example, you would not  normally  use  "cuf1= "  because  the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges  of  a  CRT  terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In  order
       to  scroll  text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to  the  top  left  corner  of  the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling  sequences  are  indn  and  rin
       which  have  the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one
       parameter, and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined  except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The  am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of
       the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply  to
       a  cuf1  from  the last column.  The only local motion which is defined
       from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from  the  left  edge
       will  move  to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not given,
       the effect is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box  around  the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this  is  on;
       i.e.,  am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first col-
       umn of the next line, that command can be given as nel  (newline).   It
       does  not  matter  if  the  command clears the remainder of the current
       line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be  possible  to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

Parameterized Strings

       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the  termi-
       nal  are  described  by a parameterized string capability, with printf-
       like escapes such as %x in it.  For example, to address the cursor, the
       cup  capability  is  given, using two parameters: the row and column to
       address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to  the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the
       terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that can  be  indicated
       by mrcup.

       The  parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate
       it.  Typically a sequence will push one  of  the  parameters  onto  the
       stack  and  then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is a spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the
       stack.   It  is noted that more complex operations are often necessary,
       e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs "%"

            as in printf(3), flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a  ":"  to  allow
            the next character to be a "-" flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as
            an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The terms "static" and "dynamic"  are  misleading.   Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not reset between calls to tparm(3x).  However, that fact  is  not
            documented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
            impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
            the  %?  expr  part  pushes a value onto the stack, and %t pops it
            from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If  it  is  zero
            (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use  the  -f  option of tic or infocmp to see the structure of if-
            then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
            written  on  one line.  The -f option splits the string into lines
            with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands  in  the  usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to  be
       sent  \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of the
       rows and columns is inverted here, and that  the  row  and  column  are
       printed    as    two    digits.     Thus    its   cup   capability   is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded  by
       a   ^T,   with   the   row   and   column  simply  encoded  in  binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".  Terminals which  use  "%c"  need  to  be  able  to
       backspace  the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on the
       screen (cuu1).  This is necessary because it  is  not  always  safe  to
       transmit  \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.  (The
       library routines dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that  tabs  are
       never  expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset  by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
       "\E=", this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII  value  for  a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the  same
       is  done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible
       using the stack.

Cursor Motions

       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very  upper  left
       corner  of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way
       of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll;  this  may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about  the  effect  of moving up from the home position.  Note that the
       home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left  cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be  given  as  single  parameter  capabilities hpa (horizontal position
       absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).   Sometimes  these  are
       shorter  than  the  more  general  two  parameter sequence (as with the
       hp2645) and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are  parameter-
       ized  local  motions  (e.g.,  move  n spaces to the right) these can be
       given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating  how
       many  spaces  to move.  These are primarily useful if the terminal does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when  running  a  program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from  terminals
       like  the  Concept  with more than one page of memory.  If the terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi-
       nal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for  the
       TEKTRONIX  4025,  where  smcup sets the command character to be the one
       used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not  restore  the  screen
       after  an  rmcup  sequence  is output (to the state prior to outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

Area Clears

       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end  of  the
       line,  leaving  the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line  to  the  current
       position  inclusive,  leaving  the  cursor  where it is, this should be
       given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current  position  to
       the  end  of  the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not avail-

Insert/delete line and vertical motions

       If the terminal can open a new blank line before  the  line  where  the
       cursor  is,  this  should  be  given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then  appear  on  the  newly
       blank  line.   If  the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
       on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the  first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If  the  terminal  has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the
       command to set this can be described with  the  csr  capability,  which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr  on
       a  properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor) com-
       mands may be useful for ensuring that  your  synthesized  insert/delete
       string  does  not  move the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3x) library
       does  this  synthesis  automatically,   so   you   need   not   compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi-
       nation of index with the memory-lock feature found  on  some  terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting  lines  at  the  top or bottom of the screen can also be done
       using ri or ind on many terminals without a  true  insert/delete  line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling win-
       dow is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To  test  for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
       write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top  of  the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom of the region by the  ri  re-appears,  then  scrolling  is  non-
       destructive.   System  V  and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and
       rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their  documentation  cautions
       you  not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndsrc is

       If  the  terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which all commands affect, it should  be  given  as  the  parameterized
       string  wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should  be  given;  if  display  memory  can be retained below, then db
       should be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling  may
       bring  non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may
       bring down non-blank lines.

Insert/Delete Character

       There are two basic kinds of  intelligent  terminals  with  respect  to
       insert/delete  character  which  can  be described using terminfo.  The
       most common insert/delete character operations affect only the  charac-
       ters  on  the current line and shift characters off the end of the line
       rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting upon an insert or delete only  to  an  untyped  blank  on  the
       screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You  can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen
       and then typing text separated by cursor  motions.   Type  "abc    def"
       using  local  cursor  motions  (not  spaces)  between the "abc" and the
       "def".  Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the  terminal
       in  insert  mode.   If typing characters causes the rest of the line to
       shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end,  then  your  terminal
       does  not  distinguish  between  blanks  and untyped positions.  If the
       "abc" shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the  end
       of  the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the sec-
       ond type of terminal, and should give the capability in,  which  stands
       for "insert null".

       While  these  are  two  logically  separate attributes (one line versus
       multi-line insert mode, and special treatment  of  untyped  spaces)  we
       have  seen  no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have  an  insert  mode,  and
       terminals  which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as  rmir  the  sequence  to  leave  insert  mode.  Now give as ich1 any
       sequence needed to be sent just before  sending  the  character  to  be
       inserted.   Most  terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1;
       terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position  should  give
       it here.

       If  your  terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.
       Technically, you should not give  both  unless  the  terminal  actually
       requires  both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some non-curses
       applications get confused if both are present; the symptom  is  doubled
       characters  in  an  update using insert.  This requirement is now rare;
       most ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most  smir  insert
       modes  do  not  require ich1 before each character.  Therefore, the new
       curses actually assumes this is the case and uses either  rmir/smir  or
       ich/ich1  as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an entry
       to be used under new curses for a terminal old  enough  to  need  both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be  sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal needs both to be placed into an "insert mode"  and  a  special
       code  to  precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1
       can be given, and both will be used.   The  ich  capability,  with  one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If  padding  is  necessary between characters typed while not in insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while  in  insert  mode  to
       delete  characters  on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion  while  in  insert
       mode  you  can  give  the  capability mir to speed up inserting in this
       case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.   Some  terminals  (notably
       Datamedia's)  must  not  have  mir because of the way their insert mode

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single  character,  dch  with
       one  parameter,  n,  to  delete n characters, and delete mode by giving
       smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete  mode  (any  mode  the  terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A  command  to  erase  n  characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells

       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be  represented  in  a number of different ways.  You should choose one
       display form as standout mode,  representing  a  good,  high  contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes,  format  for  highlighting  error  messages and other
       attention getters.  (If you have a choice,  reverse  video  plus  half-
       bright  is  good,  or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to enter and
       exit standout mode are given as smso and rmso,  respectively.   If  the
       code  to  change  into  or  out of standout mode leaves one or even two
       blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray  1061  do,  then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character  and  move  the  cursor  one  space to the right, such as the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting  modes  include  blink
       (blinking)  bold  (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis
       (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video)  sgr0
       (turn  off  all  attribute  modes) smacs (enter alternate character set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If  there  is  a  sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this
       should be given as sgr (set attributes),  taking  9  parameters.   Each
       parameter  is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is on
       or off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline,  reverse,
       blink,  dim,  bold,  blank,  protect, alternate character set.  Not all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

               tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

               none                 none             \E[0m
               p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
               p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
               p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
               p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
               p5                   dim              not available
               p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
               p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
               p8                   protect          not used
               p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We  begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since
       there is no quick way to determine whether they are  active.   Standout
       is  set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220 termi-
       nal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in  sgr  because
       it  protects  characters  on  the screen from the host's erasures.  The
       altcharset mode also is different in  that  it  is  either  ^O  or  ^N,
       depending  on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is  out-
       put  when  either  p1  or  p3  is  true, that is, if either standout or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

            sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

            \E[0                 always              \E[0
            ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
            ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
            ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
            ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
            ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
            m                    always              m
            ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also  specify  sgr0.   Also,
       some  implementations  rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not all ter-
       minfo entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.   Many  terminfo
       entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals  with  the "magic cookie" glitch (xmc) deposit special "cook-
       ies" when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display
       algorithm  rather than having extra bits for each character.  Some ter-
       minals, such as the HP 2621, automatically  leave  standout  mode  when
       they  move  to  a  new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs using
       standout mode should exit standout mode before  moving  the  cursor  or
       sending  a  newline,  unless  the msgr capability, asserting that it is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate  an  error
       quietly  (a  bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is  not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an easier to find block or blinking underline) give  this  sequence  as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which  undoes  the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If  your  terminal  correctly  generates underlined characters (with no
       special codes needed) even though it  does  not  overstrike,  then  you
       should  give  the  capability  ul.  If a character overstriking another
       leaves both characters on the screen, specify the  capability  os.   If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

Keypad and Function Keys

       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes  when  the  keys  are
       pressed,  this  information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for  example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Other-
       wise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The  codes  sent  by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow,
       and home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1,  kcuu1,  kcud1,  and  khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
       codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ...,  kf10.   If  these  keys
       have  labels  other  than the default f0 through f10, the labels can be
       given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       o   kll (home down),

       o   kbs (backspace),

       o   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       o   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       o   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       o   kdch1 (delete character),

       o   kdl1 (delete line),

       o   krmir (exit insert mode),

       o   kel (clear to end of line),

       o   ked (clear to end of screen),

       o   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       o   kil1 (insert line),

       o   knp (next page),

       o   kpp (previous page),

       o   kind (scroll forward/down),

       o   kri (scroll backward/up),

       o   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array  of  keys  including  the
       four  arrow  keys,  the  other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2,
       kc1, and kc3.  These keys are useful when the  effects  of  a  3  by  3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each  of
       these  strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out  of  this  range may program undefined keys in a terminal dependent
       manner.  The difference between the capabilities is that  pfkey  causes
       pressing  the  given  key  to  be the same as the user typing the given
       string; pfloc causes the string to  be  executed  by  the  terminal  in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The  capabilities  nlab,  lw  and  lh define the number of programmable
       screen labels and their width and height.  If  there  are  commands  to
       turn  the  labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is nor-
       mally output after one or more pln sequences  to  make  sure  that  the
       change becomes visible.

Tabs and Initialization

       If  the  terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next
       tab stop can be given as ht (usually control I).  A "back-tab"  command
       which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can be given as cbt.  By
       convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being expanded
       by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs should
       not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user may not have
       the  tab  stops  properly set.  If the terminal has hardware tabs which
       are initially set every n spaces when the terminal is powered  up,  the
       numeric  parameter  it  is given, showing the number of spaces the tabs
       are set to.  This is normally used by the  tset  command  to  determine
       whether  to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to set
       the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-
       volatile  memory,  the  terminfo  description  can assume that they are
       properly set.

       Other capabilities include is1, is2, and  is3,  initialization  strings
       for  the  terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run to ini-
       tialize the terminal, and if, the name of a file containing  long  ini-
       tialization  strings.   These  strings are expected to set the terminal
       into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.   They
       are  normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput pro-
       gram, each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the  follow-
       ing order:

              run the program

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most  initialization  is  done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be
       set up without duplicating strings by putting the common  sequences  in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A  set  of  sequences  that  does a harder reset from a totally unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
       and  is3  respectively.  These strings are output by the reset program,
       which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally  placed  in  rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For exam-
       ple, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be
       part of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is  not
       normally  needed  since  the  terminal  is usually already in 80 column

       The reset program writes strings including iprog,  etc.,  in  the  same
       order  as  the  init program, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If
       any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are  missing,  the
       reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capabil-
       ity string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given  as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to  set  the  tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

Delays and Padding

       Many  older  and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very  archaic  CRTs
       (including,  for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically  emits  ^S  back  to  the host when its input buffers are
       close to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses  the  emission  of
       padding.   You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices effec-
       tively that do not have a  speed  limit.   Padding  information  should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about rel-
       ative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below  the  value  of  pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can  be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.

Status Lines

       Some terminals have an extra "status line" which is not  normally  used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The  simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status  line  of  this  kind,  as  would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some  terminals  with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.  These may be expressed as a string with single  parameter
       tsl  which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the status
       line.  The capability fsl must return to the main-screen  cursor  posi-
       tions  before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values of
       sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl  to  accomplish

       The  status  line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width
       of the terminal.  If this is  untrue,  you  can  specify  it  with  the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The  boolean  capability  eslok  specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these  capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

Line Graphics

       Many  terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing.
       Terminfo and curses have built-in support for most of the drawing char-
       acters  supported  by  the  VT100,  with  some characters from the AT&T
       4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may  be  specified  by  the
       acsc capability.

         Glyph                       ACS            Ascii     acsc     acsc
         Name                        Name           Default   Char     Value
         arrow pointing right        ACS_RARROW     >         +        0x2b
         arrow pointing left         ACS_LARROW     <         ,        0x2c
         arrow pointing up           ACS_UARROW     ^         -        0x2d
         arrow pointing down         ACS_DARROW     v         .        0x2e
         solid square block          ACS_BLOCK      #         0        0x30
         diamond                     ACS_DIAMOND    +         `        0x60
         checker board (stipple)     ACS_CKBOARD    :         a        0x61
         degree symbol               ACS_DEGREE     \         f        0x66
         plus/minus                  ACS_PLMINUS    #         g        0x67
         board of squares            ACS_BOARD      #         h        0x68

         lantern symbol              ACS_LANTERN    #         i        0x69
         lower right corner          ACS_LRCORNER   +         j        0x6a
         upper right corner          ACS_URCORNER   +         k        0x6b
         upper left corner           ACS_ULCORNER   +         l        0x6c
         lower left corner           ACS_LLCORNER   +         m        0x6d
         large plus or crossover     ACS_PLUS       +         n        0x6e
         scan line 1                 ACS_S1         ~         o        0x6f
         scan line 3                 ACS_S3         -         p        0x70
         horizontal line             ACS_HLINE      -         q        0x71
         scan line 7                 ACS_S7         -         r        0x72
         scan line 9                 ACS_S9         _         s        0x73
         tee pointing right          ACS_LTEE       +         t        0x74
         tee pointing left           ACS_RTEE       +         u        0x75
         tee pointing up             ACS_BTEE       +         v        0x76
         tee pointing down           ACS_TTEE       +         w        0x77
         vertical line               ACS_VLINE      |         x        0x78
         less-than-or-equal-to       ACS_LEQUAL     <         y        0x79
         greater-than-or-equal-to    ACS_GEQUAL     >         z        0x7a
         greek pi                    ACS_PI         *         {        0x7b
         not-equal                   ACS_NEQUAL     !         |        0x7c
         UK pound sign               ACS_STERLING   f         }        0x7d
         bullet                      ACS_BULLET     o         ~        0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       o   X/Open  Curses  incorrectly  states that the mapping for lantern is
           uppercase "I" although Unix implementations use the  lowercase  "i"

       o   The  DEC  VT100  implemented graphics using the alternate character
           set feature, temporarily switching modes and sending characters  in
           the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the acsc Value column in the ta-

       o   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some of the characters within the range do  not  match  the  VT100;
           presumably  they  were  used in the AT&T terminal: board of squares
           replaces the VT100 newline symbol, while  lantern  symbol  replaces
           the VT100 vertical tab symbol.  The other VT100 symbols for control
           characters (horizontal tab, carriage return and line-feed) are  not
           (re)used in curses.

       The  best  way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column
       to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the  character  which
       (when  emitted  between  smacs/rmacs  switches) will be rendered as the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

Color Handling

       The  curses  library  functions init_pair and init_color manipulate the
       color  pairs  and  color  values  discussed  in   this   section   (see
       curs_color(3x) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-like":

       o   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where N
           is usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background
           characters independently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs.

       o   On  HP-like  terminals,  the user must set each color pair up sepa-
           rately (foreground and background are not independently  settable).
           Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different colors.  ANSI-
           compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric  capabilities  colors  and pairs specify the maximum numbers of
       colors and color-pairs that can be displayed  simultaneously.   The  op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default values for the terminal.  The oc string resets  all  colors  or
       color-pairs  to  their default values for the terminal.  Some terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent  background  color  rather  than  the power-up default background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       While the curses library works with color pairs (reflecting the inabil-
       ity  of  some  devices to set foreground and background colors indepen-
       dently), there are separate capabilities for setting these features:

       o   To change the current foreground or  background  color  on  a  Tek-
           tronix-type  terminal,  use  setaf  (set ANSI foreground) and setab
           (set ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set  back-
           ground).   These  take  one  parameter, the color number.  The SVr4
           documentation describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says  that
           "If  the  terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set background
           and foreground, they should be coded as setaf  and  setab,  respec-

       o   If  the  terminal supports other escape sequences to set background
           and foreground, they should be coded  as  setf  and  setb,  respec-
           tively.   The  vidputs  and the refresh(3x) functions use the setaf
           and setab capabilities if they are defined.

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric  argu-
       ment  each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined as
       follows (the middle column is the symbolic  #define  available  in  the
       header  for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in color space.

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                    red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth-
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On  an  HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       o   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present  to
           indicate  that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability
           will take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters
           which  describe the color.  These three parameters default to being
           interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capa-
           bility  hls  is  present,  they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness,
           Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       o   On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing  a
           color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a color-pair num-
           ber (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples  describing  first  back-
           ground  and then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red,
           Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can  reg-
       ister  these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask of
       attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The  correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

                  Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
                  A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
                  A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
                  A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
                  A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
                  A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
                  A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
                  A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
                  A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
                  A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
                  A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
                  A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
                  A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
                  A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
                  A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
                  A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
                  A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For  example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
       with the foreground color blue and is  not  available  in  color  mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4  curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.


       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can  be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.   Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC variable;
       though the application may set this value to  something  other  than  a
       null,  ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no
       pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be  indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy  terminal  can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as ff
       (usually control L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character  a  given  number  of
       times  (to  save  time transmitting a large number of identical charac-
       ters) this can be indicated with the  parameterized  string  rep.   The
       first  parameter  is the character to be repeated and the second is the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command  character
       is  chosen  which is used in all capabilities.  This character is given
       in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The  following  convention  is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC variable, and if found, all occurrences of the  prototype  character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal  descriptions  that  do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and  network,  should  include
       the  gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
       not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not  apply
       to  virtual  terminal  descriptions  for which the escape sequences are

       If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
       8th  bit  of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated with
       km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and  it
       will  usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode" on
       and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once,  the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to  the
       terminal  can  be  given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4:
       turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When  the  printer
       is  on,  all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It
       is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal  screen
       when  the  printer  is  on.   A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param-
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to the  printer  while
       an mc5p is in effect.

Glitches and Braindamage

       Hazeltine  terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to be displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am  wrap,  such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If  el  is  required  to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should  indicate  xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable indicating
       this is now "dest_tabs_magic_smso"; in  older  versions,  it  was  tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to position the cursor on top of a "magic cookie", that to erase stand-
       out  mode  it  is instead necessary to use delete and insert line.  The
       ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the  escape
       or  control  C  characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used
       for escape and f2 for control C.  (Only  certain  Superbees  have  this
       problem,  depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions,
       this capability was called "beehive_glitch"; it is now "no_esc_ctl_c".

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more  capa-
       bilities of the form xx.

Pitfalls of Long Entries

       Long  terminfo  entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.   Unfor-
       tunately,  the  termcap translations are much more strictly limited (to
       1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of  long  terminfo  entries  can
       cause problems.

       The  man  pages  for  4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent instruct the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.   The  entry
       gets  null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum
       safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending  on  what
       the  application  and the termcap library being used does, and where in
       the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent is  searching  for  is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries  to  1023  bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with  it:  before
       "tc"  expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because  it
       affects  more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the  backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent strips out while reading it.  Some termcap
       libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now

       o   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       o   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       o   and  the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
           the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to  see
           if it is the entry it wants,

       o   and  tgetent  is  searching  for a terminal type that either is the
           long entry, appears in the termcap file after the  long  entry,  or
           does  not  appear in the file at all (so that tgetent has to search
           the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps  its  stack,  and  probably
       core  dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly vulnera-
       ble; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type  automati-
       cally.   The  results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library,
       like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages  when  it
       reads  an  overly  long  termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates
       long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is  immune  to  dying  here  but  will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  "after  tc  expansion"  length  will  have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since  tgetent  only  does "tc" expansion once it is found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes  can  cause,
       on  various  combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even  before
       "tc"  expansion,  it will have this effect even for users of some other
       terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not  have  a  termcap

       When  in  -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1m) issues warning messages when the pre-tc  length  of  a  termcap
       translation  is  too  long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

Binary Compatibility

       It is not wise to count  on  portability  of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between  commercial  UNIX  versions.   The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX  and  AIX)  which  diverged
       from  System  V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabili-
       ties to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with  Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.


       Searching   for  terminal  descriptions  in  $HOME/.terminfo  and  TER-
       MINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all  previous  to  SVr4,  do  not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4  do  not  specify  whether msgr licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other  things,  map
       CR  and  NL  to  characters  that  do  not trigger local motions).  The
       ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET  mode.   This  raises
       the  possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite inter-
       pretation may need terminfo entries  made  for  ncurses  to  have  msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in a slightly non-standard way to get better  update  efficiency.   See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The  parameter  substitutions  for  set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are  deduced  from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be  careful  assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses library wants
       to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and  emulators  like
       xterm  that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-input

       X/Open Curses does not mention  italics.   Portable  applications  must
       assume  that  numeric  capabilities  are  signed  16-bit  values.  This
       includes the no_color_video (ncv) capability.   The  32768  mask  value
       used  for  italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled
       ncv.  If italics should work with colors, then the ncv  value  must  be
       specified, even if it is zero.

       Different  commercial  ports  of  terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different exten-
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       o   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       o   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
           capability (set_pglen).

       o   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capa-
           bilities.   The  booleans  end  with  xon_xoff;  the  numerics with
           width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       o   HP/UX -- Supports the  SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]  numerics
           num_labels,   label_height,  label_width,  plus  function  keys  11
           through 63, plus plab_norm,  label_on,  and  label_off,  plus  some
           incompatible extensions in the string table.

       o   AIX  -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63,
           plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       o   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.


       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*  files containing terminal descriptions


       tic(1m), infocmp(1m), curses(3x), curs_color(3x),  printf(3),  term(5).
       term_variables(3x).  user_caps(5).


       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.