ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package


       #include <curses.h>


       The  ncurses  library  routines  give the user a terminal-
       independent method  of  updating  character  screens  with
       reasonable  optimization.   This  implementation  is ``new
       curses'' (ncurses) and is  the  approved  replacement  for
       4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.

       The  ncurses  routines  emulate  the curses(3x) library of
       System V Release 4 UNIX, and the XPG4 curses standard (XSI
       curses)  but the ncurses library is freely redistributable
       in source form.  Differences  from  the  SVr4  curses  are
       summarized  under  the  EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections below
       and  described  in  detail  in  the  EXTENSIONS  and  BUGS
       sections of individual man pages.

       A  program  using  these  routines must be linked with the
       -lncurses option, or (if it has been generated)  with  the
       debugging  library  -lncurses_g.   (Your system integrator
       may also have installed these libraries  under  the  names
       -lcurses and -lcurses_g.)  The ncurses_g library generates
       trace logs (in  a  file  called  'trace'  in  the  current
       directory) that describe curses actions.

       The  ncurses  package supports: overall screen, window and
       pad manipulation; output  to  windows  and  pads;  reading
       terminal input; control over terminal and curses input and
       output  options;   environment   query   routines;   color
       manipulation;   use   of   soft   label   keys;   terminfo
       capabilities;   and   access   to   low-level    terminal-
       manipulation routines.

       To initialize the routines, the routine initscr or newterm
       must be called before any of the other routines that  deal
       with  windows  and  screens  are used.  The routine endwin
       must be called before exiting.  To get character-at-a-time
       input  without  echoing (most interactive, screen oriented
       programs want this),  the  following  sequence  should  be

             initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before  a  curses  program  is  run,  the tab stops of the
       terminal should be set and its initialization strings,  if
       defined,  must  be  output.  This can be done by executing
       the tput init command after the shell environment variable
       TERM  has  been  exported.  tset(1) is usually responsible
       for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses  library   permits   manipulation   of   data
       structures,  called  windows,  which  can be thought of as
       two-dimensional arrays of characters representing  all  or
       part  of  a  CRT  screen.  A default window called stdscr,
       which is the size of the  terminal  screen,  is  supplied.
       Others may be created with newwin.

       Note  that  curses  does  not  handle overlapping windows,
       that's done by the panel(3x) library. This means that  you
       can  either  use  stdscr  or  divide the screen into tiled
       windows and not using stdscr at all. Mixing the  two  will
       result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.
       These  data  structures  are  manipulated  with   routines
       described  here and elsewhere in the ncurses manual pages.
       Among which the most basic routines are  move  and  addch.
       More  general versions of these routines are included with
       names beginning with w, allowing the  user  to  specify  a
       window.  The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.)

       After using routines to manipulate a  window,  refresh  is
       called,  telling curses to make the user's CRT screen look
       like stdscr.  The characters in a window are  actually  of
       type  chtype, (character and attribute data) so that other
       information about the character may also  be  stored  with
       each character.

       Special  windows  called  pads  may  also  be manipulated.
       These are windows which are not constrained to the size of
       the  screen  and  whose  contents  need  not be completely
       displayed.  See curs_pad(3x) for more information.

       In addition to drawing characters  on  the  screen,  video
       attributes  and  colors  may  be  supported,  causing  the
       characters to show up in  such  modes  as  underlined,  in
       reverse  video, or in color on terminals that support such
       display enhancements.   Line  drawing  characters  may  be
       specified  to be output.  On input, curses is also able to
       translate arrow and function  keys  that  transmit  escape
       sequences  into single values.  The video attributes, line
       drawing characters, and input values use names, defined in
       <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or
       if the program is executing in a window environment,  line
       and  column  information  in the environment will override
       information read by terminfo.  This would effect a program
       running  in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where the size
       of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If the  environment  variable  TERMINFO  is  defined,  any
       program   using   curses   checks  for  a  local  terminal
       definition before checking in  the  standard  place.   For
       example,  if  TERM  is  set  to att4424, then the compiled
       terminal definition is found in


       (The a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid
       creation  of  huge  directories.)  However, if TERMINFO is
       set to $HOME/myterms, curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This is useful for developing experimental definitions  or
       when   write  permission  in  /usr/share/terminfo  is  not

       The integer  variables  LINES  and  COLS  are  defined  in
       <curses.h>  and will be filled in by initscr with the size
       of the screen.  The constants  TRUE  and  FALSE  have  the
       values 1 and 0, respectively.

       The  curses  routines  also  define  the WINDOW * variable
       curscr which is used for certain low-level operations like
       clearing  and  redrawing a screen containing garbage.  The
       curscr can be used in only a few routines.

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many curses routines  have  two  or  more  versions.   The
       routines  prefixed  with w require a window argument.  The
       routines prefixed with p require a  pad  argument.   Those
       without a prefix generally use stdscr.

       The routines prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate
       to move to before performing the appropriate action.   The
       mv  routines  imply  a call to move before the call to the
       other routine.  The coordinate y always refers to the  row
       (of  the  window), and x always refers to the column.  The
       upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument
       and  x  and  y coordinates.  The window argument is always
       specified before the coordinates.

       In each case, win is the window affected, and pad  is  the
       pad  affected;  win  and  pad  are always pointers to type

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the
       value  TRUE  or  FALSE;  bf  is  always of type bool.  The
       variables ch and attrs below are always  of  type  chtype.
       The  types WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and chtype are defined in
       <curses.h>.  The type TERMINAL  is  defined  in  <term.h>.
       All other arguments are integers.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name
       of the manual page on which  it  is  described.   Routines
       flagged  with  `*'  are ncurses-specific, not described by
       XPG4 or present in SVr4.

              curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
              COLOR_PAIR              curs_color(3x)
              PAIR_NUMBER             curs_attr(3x)
              _nc_tracebits           curs_trace(3x)*
              _traceattr              curs_trace(3x)*
              _traceattr2             curs_trace(3x)*
              _tracechar              curs_trace(3x)*
              _tracechtype            curs_trace(3x)*
              _tracechtype2           curs_trace(3x)*
              _tracedump              curs_trace(3x)*
              _tracef                 curs_trace(3x)*
              _tracemouse             curs_trace(3x)*
              addch                   curs_addch(3x)
              addchnstr               curs_addchstr(3x)
              addchstr                curs_addchstr(3x)
              addnstr                 curs_addstr(3x)
              addstr                  curs_addstr(3x)
              assume_default_colors   default_colors(3x)*
              attr_get                curs_attr(3x)
              attr_off                curs_attr(3x)
              attr_on                 curs_attr(3x)
              attr_set                curs_attr(3x)
              attroff                 curs_attr(3x)
              attron                  curs_attr(3x)
              attrset                 curs_attr(3x)
              baudrate                curs_termattrs(3x)
              beep                    curs_beep(3x)
              bkgd                    curs_bkgd(3x)
              bkgdset                 curs_bkgd(3x)
              border                  curs_border(3x)
              box                     curs_border(3x)
              can_change_color        curs_color(3x)
              cbreak                  curs_inopts(3x)
              chgat                   curs_attr(3x)
              clear                   curs_clear(3x)

              clearok                 curs_outopts(3x)
              clrtobot                curs_clear(3x)
              clrtoeol                curs_clear(3x)
              color_content           curs_color(3x)
              color_set               curs_attr(3x)
              copywin                 curs_overlay(3x)
              curs_set                curs_kernel(3x)
              curses_version          curs_extend(3x)*
              def_prog_mode           curs_kernel(3x)
              def_shell_mode          curs_kernel(3x)
              define_key              define_key(3x)*
              del_curterm             curs_terminfo(3x)
              delay_output            curs_util(3x)
              delch                   curs_delch(3x)
              deleteln                curs_deleteln(3x)
              delscreen               curs_initscr(3x)
              delwin                  curs_window(3x)
              derwin                  curs_window(3x)
              doupdate                curs_refresh(3x)
              dupwin                  curs_window(3x)
              echo                    curs_inopts(3x)
              echochar                curs_addch(3x)
              endwin                  curs_initscr(3x)
              erase                   curs_clear(3x)
              erasechar               curs_termattrs(3x)
              filter                  curs_util(3x)
              flash                   curs_beep(3x)
              flushinp                curs_util(3x)
              getbegyx                curs_getyx(3x)
              getbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3x)
              getch                   curs_getch(3x)
              getmaxyx                curs_getyx(3x)
              getmouse                curs_mouse(3x)*
              getnstr                 curs_getstr(3x)
              getparyx                curs_getyx(3x)
              getstr                  curs_getstr(3x)
              getsyx                  curs_kernel(3x)
              getwin                  curs_util(3x)
              getyx                   curs_getyx(3x)
              halfdelay               curs_inopts(3x)
              has_colors              curs_color(3x)
              has_ic                  curs_termattrs(3x)
              has_il                  curs_termattrs(3x)
              has_key                 curs_getch(3x)*
              hline                   curs_border(3x)
              idcok                   curs_outopts(3x)
              idlok                   curs_outopts(3x)
              immedok                 curs_outopts(3x)
              inch                    curs_inch(3x)
              inchnstr                curs_inchstr(3x)
              inchstr                 curs_inchstr(3x)
              init_color              curs_color(3x)
              init_pair               curs_color(3x)

              initscr                 curs_initscr(3x)
              innstr                  curs_instr(3x)
              insch                   curs_insch(3x)
              insdelln                curs_deleteln(3x)
              insertln                curs_deleteln(3x)
              insnstr                 curs_insstr(3x)
              insstr                  curs_insstr(3x)
              instr                   curs_instr(3x)
              intrflush               curs_inopts(3x)
              is_linetouched          curs_touch(3x)
              is_wintouched           curs_touch(3x)
              isendwin                curs_initscr(3x)
              keybound                keybound(3x)*
              keyname                 curs_util(3x)
              keyok                   keyok(3x)*
              keypad                  curs_inopts(3x)
              killchar                curs_termattrs(3x)
              leaveok                 curs_outopts(3x)
              longname                curs_termattrs(3x)
              mcprint                 curs_print(3x)*
              meta                    curs_inopts(3x)
              mouse_trafo             curs_mouse(3x)*
              mouseinterval           curs_mouse(3x)*
              mousemask               curs_mouse(3x)*
              move                    curs_move(3x)
              mvaddch                 curs_addch(3x)
              mvaddchnstr             curs_addchstr(3x)
              mvaddchstr              curs_addchstr(3x)
              mvaddnstr               curs_addstr(3x)
              mvaddstr                curs_addstr(3x)
              mvchgat                 curs_attr(3x)
              mvcur                   curs_terminfo(3x)
              mvdelch                 curs_delch(3x)
              mvderwin                curs_window(3x)
              mvgetch                 curs_getch(3x)
              mvgetnstr               curs_getstr(3x)
              mvgetstr                curs_getstr(3x)
              mvhline                 curs_border(3x)
              mvinch                  curs_inch(3x)
              mvinchnstr              curs_inchstr(3x)
              mvinchstr               curs_inchstr(3x)
              mvinnstr                curs_instr(3x)
              mvinsch                 curs_insch(3x)
              mvinsnstr               curs_insstr(3x)
              mvinsstr                curs_insstr(3x)
              mvinstr                 curs_instr(3x)
              mvprintw                curs_printw(3x)
              mvscanw                 curs_scanw(3x)
              mvvline                 curs_border(3x)
              mvwaddch                curs_addch(3x)
              mvwaddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3x)
              mvwaddchstr             curs_addchstr(3x)
              mvwaddnstr              curs_addstr(3x)

              mvwaddstr               curs_addstr(3x)
              mvwchgat                curs_attr(3x)
              mvwdelch                curs_delch(3x)
              mvwgetch                curs_getch(3x)
              mvwgetnstr              curs_getstr(3x)
              mvwgetstr               curs_getstr(3x)
              mvwhline                curs_border(3x)
              mvwin                   curs_window(3x)
              mvwinch                 curs_inch(3x)
              mvwinchnstr             curs_inchstr(3x)
              mvwinchstr              curs_inchstr(3x)
              mvwinnstr               curs_instr(3x)
              mvwinsch                curs_insch(3x)
              mvwinsnstr              curs_insstr(3x)
              mvwinsstr               curs_insstr(3x)
              mvwinstr                curs_instr(3x)
              mvwprintw               curs_printw(3x)
              mvwscanw                curs_scanw(3x)
              mvwvline                curs_border(3x)
              napms                   curs_kernel(3x)
              newpad                  curs_pad(3x)
              newterm                 curs_initscr(3x)
              newwin                  curs_window(3x)
              nl                      curs_outopts(3x)
              nocbreak                curs_inopts(3x)
              nodelay                 curs_inopts(3x)
              noecho                  curs_inopts(3x)
              nonl                    curs_outopts(3x)
              noqiflush               curs_inopts(3x)
              noraw                   curs_inopts(3x)
              notimeout               curs_inopts(3x)
              overlay                 curs_overlay(3x)
              overwrite               curs_overlay(3x)
              pair_content            curs_color(3x)
              pechochar               curs_pad(3x)
              pnoutrefresh            curs_pad(3x)
              prefresh                curs_pad(3x)
              printw                  curs_printw(3x)
              putp                    curs_terminfo(3x)
              putwin                  curs_util(3x)
              qiflush                 curs_inopts(3x)
              raw                     curs_inopts(3x)
              redrawwin               curs_refresh(3x)
              refresh                 curs_refresh(3x)
              reset_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3x)
              reset_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3x)
              resetty                 curs_kernel(3x)
              resizeterm              resizeterm(3x)*
              restartterm             curs_terminfo(3x)
              ripoffline              curs_kernel(3x)
              savetty                 curs_kernel(3x)
              scanw                   curs_scanw(3x)
              scr_dump                curs_scr_dump(3x)

              scr_init                curs_scr_dump(3x)
              scr_restore             curs_scr_dump(3x)
              scr_set                 curs_scr_dump(3x)
              scrl                    curs_scroll(3x)
              scroll                  curs_scroll(3x)
              scrollok                curs_outopts(3x)
              set_curterm             curs_terminfo(3x)
              set_term                curs_initscr(3x)
              setscrreg               curs_outopts(3x)
              setsyx                  curs_kernel(3x)
              setterm                 curs_terminfo(3x)
              setupterm               curs_terminfo(3x)
              slk_attr                curs_slk(3x)*
              slk_attr_off            curs_slk(3x)
              slk_attr_on             curs_slk(3x)
              slk_attr_set            curs_slk(3x)
              slk_attroff             curs_slk(3x)
              slk_attron              curs_slk(3x)
              slk_attrset             curs_slk(3x)
              slk_clear               curs_slk(3x)
              slk_color               curs_slk(3x)
              slk_init                curs_slk(3x)
              slk_label               curs_slk(3x)
              slk_noutrefresh         curs_slk(3x)
              slk_refresh             curs_slk(3x)
              slk_restore             curs_slk(3x)
              slk_set                 curs_slk(3x)
              slk_touch               curs_slk(3x)
              standend                curs_attr(3x)
              standout                curs_attr(3x)
              start_color             curs_color(3x)
              subpad                  curs_pad(3x)
              subwin                  curs_window(3x)
              syncok                  curs_window(3x)
              termattrs               curs_termattrs(3x)
              termname                curs_termattrs(3x)
              tgetent                 curs_termcap(3x)
              tgetflag                curs_termcap(3x)
              tgetnum                 curs_termcap(3x)
              tgetstr                 curs_termcap(3x)
              tgoto                   curs_termcap(3x)
              tigetflag               curs_terminfo(3x)
              tigetnum                curs_terminfo(3x)
              tigetstr                curs_terminfo(3x)
              timeout                 curs_inopts(3x)
              touchline               curs_touch(3x)
              touchwin                curs_touch(3x)
              tparm                   curs_terminfo(3x)
              tputs                   curs_termcap(3x)
              tputs                   curs_terminfo(3x)
              trace                   curs_trace(3x)*
              typeahead               curs_inopts(3x)
              unctrl                  curs_util(3x)

              ungetch                 curs_getch(3x)
              ungetmouse              curs_mouse(3x)*
              untouchwin              curs_touch(3x)
              use_default_colors      default_colors(3x)*
              use_env                 curs_util(3x)
              use_extended_names      curs_extend(3x)*
              vidattr                 curs_terminfo(3x)
              vidputs                 curs_terminfo(3x)
              vline                   curs_border(3x)
              vw_printw               curs_printw(3x)
              vw_scanw                curs_scanw(3x)
              vwprintw                curs_printw(3x)
              vwscanw                 curs_scanw(3x)
              waddch                  curs_addch(3x)
              waddchnstr              curs_addchstr(3x)
              waddchstr               curs_addchstr(3x)
              waddnstr                curs_addstr(3x)
              waddstr                 curs_addstr(3x)
              wattr_get               curs_attr(3x)
              wattr_off               curs_attr(3x)
              wattr_on                curs_attr(3x)
              wattr_set               curs_attr(3x)
              wattroff                curs_attr(3x)
              wattron                 curs_attr(3x)
              wattrset                curs_attr(3x)
              wbkgd                   curs_bkgd(3x)
              wbkgdset                curs_bkgd(3x)
              wborder                 curs_border(3x)
              wchgat                  curs_attr(3x)
              wclear                  curs_clear(3x)
              wclrtobot               curs_clear(3x)
              wclrtoeol               curs_clear(3x)
              wcolor_set              curs_attr(3x)
              wcursyncup              curs_window(3x)
              wdelch                  curs_delch(3x)
              wdeleteln               curs_deleteln(3x)
              wechochar               curs_addch(3x)
              wenclose                curs_mouse(3x)*
              werase                  curs_clear(3x)
              wgetch                  curs_getch(3x)
              wgetnstr                curs_getstr(3x)
              wgetstr                 curs_getstr(3x)
              whline                  curs_border(3x)
              winch                   curs_inch(3x)
              winchnstr               curs_inchstr(3x)
              winchstr                curs_inchstr(3x)
              winnstr                 curs_instr(3x)
              winsch                  curs_insch(3x)
              winsdelln               curs_deleteln(3x)
              winsertln               curs_deleteln(3x)
              winsnstr                curs_insstr(3x)
              winsstr                 curs_insstr(3x)
              winstr                  curs_instr(3x)

              wmouse_trafo            curs_mouse(3x)*
              wmove                   curs_move(3x)
              wnoutrefresh            curs_refresh(3x)
              wprintw                 curs_printw(3x)
              wredrawln               curs_refresh(3x)
              wrefresh                curs_refresh(3x)
              wresize                 wresize(3x)*
              wscanw                  curs_scanw(3x)
              wscrl                   curs_scroll(3x)
              wsetscrreg              curs_outopts(3x)
              wstandend               curs_attr(3x)
              wstandout               curs_attr(3x)
              wsyncdown               curs_window(3x)
              wsyncup                 curs_window(3x)
              wtimeout                curs_inopts(3x)
              wtouchln                curs_touch(3x)
              wvline                  curs_border(3x)


       Routines that return an integer return  ERR  upon  failure
       and  an  integer  value  other  than  ERR  upon successful
       completion,  unless  otherwise  noted   in   the   routine

       All  macros  return  the  value  of  the w version, except
       setscrreg, wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  getmaxyx.   The
       return  values  of setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx,
       and getmaxyx are undefined (i.e., these should not be used
       as the right-hand side of assignment statements).

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.


       The   following   environment   symbols   are  useful  for
       customizing the runtime behavior of the  ncurses  library.
       The  most  important  ones  have been already discussed in

            The debugging library checks this environment  symbol
            when the application has redirected output to a file.
            The symbol's numeric value is used for the  baudrate.
            If  no value is found ncurses uses 9600.  This allows
            testers to construct repeatable test-cases that  take
            into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the command_character
            (i.e., the cmdch capability) of the  loaded  terminfo
            entries  to  the  value  of  this  symbol.   Very few
            terminfo entries provide this feature.

            Specify  the  width  of  the  screen  in  characters.
            Applications   running  in  a  windowing  environment
            usually are able to obtain the width of the window in
            which  they  are  executing.  If neither the $COLUMNS
            value nor the terminal's screen  size  is  available,
            ncurses  uses  the size which may be specified in the
            terminfo database (i.e., the cols capability).

            It is important that your application use  a  correct
            size  for  the  screen.   However, this is not always
            possible because your application may be running on a
            host  which  does  not honor NAWS (Negotiations About
            Window Size), or because you are temporarily  running
            as another user.

            Either  COLUMNS  or  LINES  symbols  may be specified
            independently.  This is mainly useful  to  circumvent
            legacy  misfeatures  of  terminal descriptions, e.g.,
            xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen.  For
            best  results, lines and cols should not be specified
            in a terminal description for terminals which are run
            as emulations.

            Use the use_env function to disable this feature.

            Specifies  the total time, in milliseconds, for which
            ncurses will await  a  character  sequence,  e.g.,  a
            function  key.  The default value, 1000 milliseconds,
            is enough for most  uses.   However,  it  is  made  a
            variable to accommodate unusual applications.

            The most common instance where you may wish to change
            this value is to work with slow hosts, e.g.,  running
            on  a  network.   If  the host cannot read characters
            rapidly enough, it will have the same  effect  as  if
            the  terminal did not send characters rapidly enough.
            The library will still see a timeout.

            Note that  xterm  mouse  events  are  built  up  from
            character sequences received from the xterm.  If your
            application makes heavy use of multiple-clicking, you
            may  wish  to lengthen this default value because the
            timeout applies to the composed multi-click event  as
            well as the individual clicks.

       HOME Tells  ncurses where your home directory is.  That is
            where  it  may  read  and  write  auxiliary  terminal


            Like  COLUMNS,  specify  the  height of the screen in
            characters.  See COLUMNS for a detailed  description.

            This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies
            the order of buttons on the mouse.   OS/2  numbers  a
            3-button mouse inconsistently from other platforms:

            1 = left
            2 = right
            3 = middle.

            This symbol lets you customize the mouse.  The symbol
            must be three numeric digits 1-3 in any order,  e.g.,
            123  or  321.   If  it is not specified, ncurses uses

            Most of the terminal  descriptions  in  the  terminfo
            database  are  written for real "hardware" terminals.
            Many people use terminal emulators  which  run  in  a
            windowing    environment    and    use   curses-based
            applications.  Terminal emulators can  duplicate  all
            of  the important aspects of a hardware terminal, but
            they do not have the  same  limitations.   The  chief
            limitation of a hardware terminal from the standpoint
            of your application is the  management  of  dataflow,
            i.e.,   timing.    Unless   a  hardware  terminal  is
            interfaced into a terminal concentrator  (which  does
            flow  control),  it (or your application) must manage
            dataflow, preventing overruns.  The cheapest solution
            (no  hardware cost) is for your program to do this by
            pausing  after  operations  that  the  terminal  does
            slowly, such as clearing the display.

            As  a  result,  many terminal descriptions (including
            the vt100) have delay times embedded.  You  may  wish
            to  use  these  descriptions, but not want to pay the
            performance penalty.

            Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING symbol to disable all  but
            mandatory  padding.   Mandatory  padding is used as a
            part of special control sequences such as flash.

            Normally  ncurses  enables  buffered  output   during
            terminal  initialization.   This  is done (as in SVr4
            curses)  for  performance   reasons.    For   testing
            purposes,  both  of ncurses and certain applications,
            this  feature  is   made   optional.    Setting   the
            NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable disables output buffering,
            leaving the output  in  the  original  (usually  line
            buffered) mode.

            During  initialization, the ncurses debugging library
            checks the NCURSES_TRACE symbol.  If it  is  defined,
            to a numeric value, ncurses calls the trace function,
            using that value as the argument.

            The argument values, which are defined  in  curses.h,
            provide  several  types of information.  When running
            with traces enabled, your application will write  the
            file trace to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes  your  terminal  type.  Each terminal type is
            distinct, though many are similar.

            If the  ncurses  library  has  been  configured  with
            termcap  support, ncurses will check for a terminal's
            description in termcap form if it is not available in
            the terminfo database.

            The   TERMCAP   symbol  contains  either  a  terminal
            description (with newlines stripped out), or  a  file
            name  telling  where  the  information denoted by the
            TERM symbol  exists.   In  either  case,  setting  it
            directs  ncurses  to  ignore the usual place for this
            information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

            Overrides the directory in which ncurses searches for
            your terminal description.  This is the simplest, but
            not the only way to change the list  of  directories.
            The complete list of directories in order follows:

            -  the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any,
               is searched first.

            -  the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol

            -  $HOME/.terminfo

            -  directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol

            -  one or more directories whose names are configured
               and  compiled  into  the  ncurses  library,  e.g.,

            Specifies  a  list  of  directories  to  search   for
            terminal  descriptions.   The  list  is  separated by
            colons (i.e., ":").  All of the terminal descriptions
            are  in  terminfo  form,  which  makes a subdirectory
            named for the first  letter  of  the  terminal  names

            If  TERMCAP  does  not  hold a file name then ncurses
            checks the  TERMPATH  symbol.   This  is  a  list  of
            filenames  separated  by  colons (i.e., ":").  If the
            TERMPATH symbol is not  set,  ncurses  looks  in  the
            files   /etc/termcap,   /usr/share/misc/termcap   and
            $HOME/.termcap, in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard  the  following
       variables  when  the current user is the superuser (root),
       or if the application uses setuid or  setgid  permissions:


            directory  containing  initialization  files  for the
            terminal  capability   database   /usr/share/terminfo
            terminal capability database


       terminfo(5)  and  3x  pages  whose names begin "curs_" for
       detailed routine descriptions.


       The  ncurses  library  can  be  compiled  with  an  option
       (-DUSE_GETCAP)   that   falls   back   to   the  old-style
       /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup code cannot find a
       terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use of this feature
       is not recommended, as it essentially includes  an  entire
       termcap   compiler   in   the  ncurses  startup  code,  at
       significant cost in core and startup cycles.

       The ncurses  library  includes  facilities  for  capturing
       mouse  events  on certain terminals (including xterm). See
       the curs_mouse(3x) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding  to
       window  resizing  events,  e.g., when running in an xterm.
       See the resizeterm(3x) and wresize(3x)  manual  pages  for
       details.   In addition, the library may be configured with
       a SIGWINCH handler.

       The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function  key
       capabilities  of  terminals  by  allowing  the application
       designer to define additional key  sequences  at  runtime.
       See  the  define_key(3x)  and  keyok(3x)  manual pages for

       The  ncurses  library  can  exploit  the  capabilities  of
       terminals  which  implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49
       controls, which allow an application to reset the terminal
       to  its  original  foreground and background colors.  From
       the users' perspective, the application is  able  to  draw
       colored   text   on   a  background  whose  color  is  set
       independently,  providing  better   control   over   color
       contrasts.  See the use_default_colors(3x) manual page for
       The ncurses library  includes  a  function  for  directing
       application  output  to a printer attached to the terminal
       device.  See the curs_print(3x) manual page for details.


       The  ncurses  library  is  intended   to   be   BASE-level
       conformant with the XSI Curses standard.  Certain portions
       of the EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality (including  color
       support) are supported.  The following EXTENDED XSI Curses
       calls in support of wide (multibyte)  characters  are  not
       yet   implemented:   add_wch,   add_wchnstr,   add_wchstr,
       addnwstr, addwstr, bkgrnd, bkgrndset, border_set, box_set,
       echo_wchar,   erasewchar,  get_wch,  get_wstr,  getbkgrnd,
       getcchar,  getn_wstr,   getwchtype,   hline_set,   in_wch,
       in_wchnstr,   in_wchstr,   innwstr,   ins_nwstr,  ins_wch,
       ins_wstr,   inwchnstr,   inwchstr,    inwstr,    key_name,
       killwchar,    mvadd_wch,    mvadd_wchnstr,   mvadd_wchstr,
       mvaddnwstr, mvaddwstr, mvget_wch, mvget_wstr, mvgetn_wstr,
       mvhline_set,  mvin_wch, mvinnwstr, mvins_nwstr, mvins_wch,
       mvins_wstr, mvinwchnstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwstr,
       mvvline_set,  mvwadd_wch,  mvwadd_wchnstr,  mvwadd_wchstr,
       mvwaddnwstr,    mvwaddwstr,     mvwget_ch,     mvwget_wch,
       mvwget_wstr,    mvwgetn_wstr,   mvwhline_set,   mvwin_wch,
       mvwin_wchnstr,  mvwin_wchstr,  mvwinnwstr,   mvwins_nwstr,
       mvwins_wch,    mvwins_wstr,    mvwinwchnstr.    mvwinwstr,
       mvwvline_set, pecho_wchar, setcchar, slk_wset, term_attrs,
       unget_wch,   vhline_set,  vid_attr,  vid_puts,  vline_set,
       wadd_wch, wadd_wchnstr, wadd_wchstr, waddnwstr,  waddwstr,
       waddwstr,  wbkgrnd,  wbkgrndset,  wbkgrndset, wborder_set,
       wecho_wchar, wecho_wchar, wget_wch, wget_wstr, wgetbkgrnd,
       wgetn_wstr,  whline_set, win_wch, win_wchnstr, win_wchstr,
       winnwstr,  wins_nwstr,  wins_wch,  wins_wstr,  winwchnstr,
       winwchstr, winwstr, wunctrl, wvline_set,

       A  small  number of local differences (that is, individual
       differences between the XSI Curses and ncurses calls)  are
       described  in  PORTABILITY  sections  of  the  library man

       The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is it present
       in  SVr4.  See the curs_getch(3x) manual page for details.

       The routine slk_attr is  not  part  of  XPG4,  nor  is  it
       present  in  SVr4.   See  the curs_slk(3x) manual page for

       The    routines    getmouse,    mousemask,     ungetmouse,
       mouseinterval,  and wenclose relating to mouse interfacing
       are not part of XPG4, nor are they present in  SVr4.   See
       the curs_mouse(3x) manual page for details.

       The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses
       implementation.  See the curs_print(3x)  manual  page  for
       The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present
       in SVr4.  See the wresize(3x) manual page for details.

       In  historic  curses  versions,  delays  embedded  in  the
       capabilities   cr,   ind,   cub1,  ff  and  tab  activated
       corresponding delay bits in the UNIX tty driver.  In  this
       implementation,  all  padding  is done by NUL sends.  This
       method  is  slightly  more  expensive,  but  narrows   the
       interface  to  the UNIX kernel significantly and increases
       the package's portability correspondingly.

       In the XSI standard and  SVr4  manual  pages,  many  entry
       points have prototype arguments of the for char *const (or
       cchar_t  *const,  or  wchar_t  *const,  or  void  *const).
       Depending  on  one's interpretation of the ANSI C standard
       (see section, these declarations are  either  (a)
       meaningless,   or   (b)   meaningless  and  illegal.   The
       declaration const char  *x  is  a  modifiable  pointer  to
       unmodifiable  data,  but char *const x' is an unmodifiable
       pointer to modifiable data.  Given that C passes arguments
       by  value,  <type>  *const  as  a  formal  type is at best
       dubious.   Some  compilers  choke   on   the   prototypes.
       Therefore,  in this implementation, they have been changed
       to const <type> * globally.


       The header  file  <curses.h>  automatically  includes  the
       header files <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If  standard  output from a ncurses program is re-directed
       to something which is not a tty, screen  updates  will  be
       directed  to  standard  error.   This  was an undocumented
       feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.


       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric  S.  Raymond,  Thomas  E.  Dickey.
       Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.

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