panel 3x

panel(3x)                                                            panel(3x)


       panel - panel stack extension for curses


       #include <panel.h>

       cc [flags] sourcefiles -lpanel -lncurses

       PANEL *new_panel(WINDOW *win);
       int bottom_panel(PANEL *pan);
       int top_panel(PANEL *pan);
       int show_panel(PANEL *pan);
       void update_panels();
       int hide_panel(PANEL *pan);
       WINDOW *panel_window(const PANEL *pan);
       int replace_panel(PANEL *pan, WINDOW *window);
       int move_panel(PANEL *pan, int starty, int startx);
       int panel_hidden(const PANEL *pan);
       PANEL *panel_above(const PANEL *pan);
       PANEL *panel_below(const PANEL *pan);
       int set_panel_userptr(PANEL *pan, const void *ptr);
       const void *panel_userptr(const PANEL *pan);
       int del_panel(PANEL *pan);


       Panels  are  curses(3x) windows with the added feature of depth.  Panel
       functions allow the use of stacked windows and ensure the  proper  por-
       tions  of  each  window and the curses stdscr window are hidden or dis-
       played when panels are added, moved, modified or removed.  The  set  of
       currently  visible panels is the stack of panels.  The stdscr window is
       beneath all panels, and is not considered part of the stack.

       A window is associated with every panel.  The panel routines enable you
       to  create, move, hide, and show panels, as well as position a panel at
       any desired location in the stack.

       Panel routines are a functional layer added to  curses(3x),  make  only
       high-level curses calls, and work anywhere terminfo curses does.


              allocates   a   PANEL  structure, associates it with win, places
              the panel on the top of the stack  (causes  it to  be  displayed
              above any other panel) and returns a pointer to the new panel.

              refreshes  the  virtual  screen to reflect the relations between
              the panels in the stack, but does not call doupdate  to  refresh
              the  physical  screen.   Use  this  function and not wrefresh or
              wnoutrefresh.  update_panels may be called more than once before
              a call to doupdate, but doupdate is the function responsible for
              updating the physical screen.

              removes the given panel from  the   stack  and  deallocates  the
              PANEL structure (but not its associated window).

              removes  the  given panel from the panel stack and thus hides it
              from view.  The PANEL structure is not lost, merely removed from
              the stack.

              returns  TRUE if the panel is in the panel stack, FALSE if it is
              not.  If the panel is a null pointer, return ERR.

              makes a hidden panel visible by placing it on top of the  panels
              in the panel stack.  See COMPATIBILITY below.

              puts  the given visible panel on top of all panels in the stack.
              See COMPATIBILITY below.

              puts panel at the bottom of all panels.

              moves the given panel window so that its upper-left corner is at
              starty, startx.  It does not change the position of the panel in
              the stack.  Be sure to use this function, not mvwin, to  move  a
              panel window.

              replaces  the  current  window of panel with window (useful, for
              example if you want to resize a panel; if you're using  ncurses,
              you  can  call  replace_panel on the output of wresize(3x)).  It
              does not change the position of the panel in the stack.

              returns a pointer to the panel above pan.  If the panel argument
              is  (PANEL  *)0, it returns a pointer to the bottom panel in the

              returns a pointer to the panel just below  pan.   If  the  panel
              argument is (PANEL *)0, it returns a pointer to the top panel in
              the stack.

              sets the panel's user pointer.

              returns the user pointer for a given panel.

              returns a pointer to the window of the given panel.


       Each routine that returns a pointer returns NULL if  an  error  occurs.
       Each  routine  that returns an int value returns OK if it executes suc-
       cessfully and ERR if not.


       Reasonable care has been taken  to   ensure   compatibility  with   the
       native   panel  facility introduced in System V (inspection of the SVr4
       manual pages suggests the programming  interface  is  unchanged).   The
       PANEL  data  structures  are  merely  similar.  The  programmer is cau-
       tioned not to directly use PANEL fields.

       The functions show_panel and top_panel are identical in this  implemen-
       tation,  and work equally well with displayed or hidden panels.  In the
       native System V implementation, show_panel is  intended  for  making  a
       hidden  panel  visible  (at  the  top  of  the  stack) and top_panel is
       intended for making an already-visible panel move to  the  top  of  the
       stack.  You are cautioned to use the correct function to ensure compat-
       ibility with native panel libraries.


       In your library list, libpanel.a should be  before  libncurses.a;  that
       is, you should say "-lpanel -lncurses", not the other way around (which
       would give a link-error with static libraries).


       The panel facility was documented in SVr4.2 in Character User Interface
       Programming (UNIX SVR4.2).

       It is not part of X/Open Curses.

       Aside  from  ncurses,  only  systems  based  on SVr4 source code, e.g.,
       Solaris provide this library.


       panel.h interface for the panels library

       libpanel.a the panels library itself


       curses(3x), curs_variables(3x),

       This describes ncurses version 6.1 (patch 20180728).


       Originally written by Warren Tucker <>,  primar-
       ily  to  assist  in  porting u386mon to systems without a native panels
       library.  Repackaged for ncurses by Zeyd ben-Halim.