panel 3x

panel(3x)                                                            panel(3x)


       panel - panel stack extension for curses


       #include <panel.h>

       cc [flags] sourcefiles -lpanel -lncurses

       PANEL *new_panel(WINDOW *win);

       int bottom_panel(PANEL *pan);
       int top_panel(PANEL *pan);
       int show_panel(PANEL *pan);
       void update_panels(void);
       int hide_panel(PANEL *pan);

       WINDOW *panel_window(const PANEL *pan);
       int replace_panel(PANEL *pan, WINDOW *window);
       int move_panel(PANEL *pan, int starty, int startx);
       int panel_hidden(const PANEL *pan);

       PANEL *panel_above(const PANEL *pan);
       PANEL *panel_below(const PANEL *pan);

       int set_panel_userptr(PANEL *pan, const void *ptr);
       const void *panel_userptr(const PANEL *pan);

       int del_panel(PANEL *pan);

       /* ncurses-extensions */
       PANEL *ground_panel(SCREEN *sp);
       PANEL *ceiling_panel(SCREEN *sp);


       Panels  are  curses(3x) windows with the added feature of depth.  Panel
       functions allow the use of stacked windows and ensure the  proper  por-
       tions  of  each  window and the curses stdscr window are hidden or dis-
       played when panels are added, moved, modified or removed.  The  set  of
       currently  visible panels is the stack of panels.  The stdscr window is
       beneath all panels, and is not considered part of the stack.

       A window is associated with every panel.  The panel routines enable you
       to  create, move, hide, and show panels, as well as position a panel at
       any desired location in the stack.

       Panel routines are a functional layer added to  curses(3x),  make  only
       high-level curses calls, and work anywhere terminfo curses does.



       bottom_panel(pan) puts panel pan at the bottom of all panels.


       ceiling_panel(sp) acts like panel_below(NULL), for the given SCREEN sp.


       del_panel(pan)  removes the given panel pan from the  stack and deallo-
       cates the PANEL structure (but not its associated window).


       ground_panel(sp) acts like panel_above(NULL), for the given SCREEN sp.


       hide_panel(pan) removes the given panel pan from the  panel  stack  and
       thus  hides  it  from  view.   The  PANEL structure is not lost, merely
       removed from the stack.


       move_panel(pan,starty,startx) moves the given  panel  pan's  window  so
       that  its  upper-left  corner is at starty, startx.  It does not change
       the position of the panel in the stack.  Be sure to use this  function,
       not mvwin(3x), to move a panel window.


       new_panel(win)  allocates   a  PANEL structure, associates it with win,
       places the panel on the top of the stack (causes  it to  be   displayed
       above any other panel) and returns a pointer to the new panel.


       panel_above(pan)  returns  a  pointer  to  the panel above pan.  If the
       panel argument is (PANEL *)0, it returns a pointer to the bottom  panel
       in the stack.


       panel_below(pan) returns a pointer to the panel just below pan.  If the
       panel argument is (PANEL *)0, it returns a pointer to the top panel  in
       the stack.


       panel_hidden(pan)  returns TRUE if the panel pan is in the panel stack,
       FALSE if it is not.  If the panel is a null pointer, return ERR.


       panel_userptr(pan) returns the user pointer for a given panel pan.


       panel_window(pan) returns a pointer to the window of  the  given  panel


       replace_panel(pan,window) replaces the current window of panel pan with
       window This is useful, for example if you want to resize a  panel.   In
       ncurses,  you  can  call replace_panel to resize a panel using a window
       resized with wresize(3x).  It does not change the position of the panel
       in the stack.


       set_panel_userptr(pan,ptr) sets the panel's user pointer.


       show_panel(pan)  makes  a  hidden panel visible by placing it on top of
       the panels in the panel stack.  See COMPATIBILITY below.


       top_panel(pan) puts the given visible panel pan on top of all panels in
       the stack.  See COMPATIBILITY below.


       update_panels()  refreshes  the virtual screen to reflect the relations
       between the panels in the stack, but  does  not  call  doupdate(3x)  to
       refresh the physical screen.  Use this function and not wrefresh(3x) or

       update_panels may be called more than once before a call  to  doupdate,
       but  doupdate  is  the  function  responsible for updating the physical


       Each routine that returns a pointer returns NULL if  an  error  occurs.
       Each  routine  that returns an int value returns OK if it executes suc-
       cessfully and ERR if not.

       Except as noted, the pan and window parameters must  be  non-null.   If
       those are null, an error is returned.

       The  move_panel  function  uses  mvwin(3x), and will return an error if
       mvwin returns an error.


       Reasonable care has been taken  to   ensure   compatibility  with   the
       native   panel  facility introduced in System V (inspection of the SVr4
       manual pages suggests the programming  interface  is  unchanged).   The
       PANEL  data  structures  are  merely  similar.  The  programmer is cau-
       tioned not to directly use PANEL fields.

       The functions show_panel and top_panel are identical in this  implemen-
       tation,  and work equally well with displayed or hidden panels.  In the
       native System V implementation, show_panel is  intended  for  making  a
       hidden  panel  visible  (at  the  top  of  the  stack) and top_panel is
       intended for making an already-visible panel move to  the  top  of  the
       stack.  You are cautioned to use the correct function to ensure compat-
       ibility with native panel libraries.


       In your library list, libpanel.a should be  before  libncurses.a;  that
       is, you should say "-lpanel -lncurses", not the other way around (which
       would give a link-error with static libraries).


       The panel facility was documented in SVr4.2 in Character User Interface
       Programming (UNIX SVR4.2).

       It is not part of X/Open Curses.

       A few implementations exist:

       o   Systems  based  on  SVr4  source  code, e.g., Solaris, provide this

       o   ncurses (since version 0.6 in 1993) and PDCurses (since version 2.2
           in 1995) provide a panel library whose common ancestor was a public
           domain implementation by Warren Tucker published  in  u386mon  2.20

           According  to  Tucker, the SystemV panel library was first released
           in SVr3.2 (1988), and his implementation  helped  with  a  port  to
           SVr3.1 (1987).

           Several  developers have improved each of these; they are no longer
           the same as Tucker's implementation.

       o   NetBSD 8 (2018) has a panel library  begun  by  Valery  Ushakov  in
           2015.  This is based on the AT&T documentation.


       panel.h interface for the panels library

       libpanel.a the panels library itself


       curses(3x), curs_variables(3x),

       This describes ncurses version 6.2 (patch 20200613).


       Originally  written by Warren Tucker <>, primar-
       ily to assist in porting u386mon to systems  without  a  native  panels

       Repackaged for ncurses by Zeyd ben-Halim.

       Juergen Pfeifer and Thomas E. Dickey revised/improved the library.