terminfo 5 File Formats

terminfo(5)                   File Formats                  terminfo(5)


       terminfo - terminal capability data base




       Terminfo  is  a  data  base  describing terminals, used by
       screen-oriented programs  such  as  nvi(1),  rogue(1)  and
       libraries  such  as curses(3x).  Terminfo describes termi-
       nals by giving a set of capabilities which they  have,  by
       specifying how to perform screen operations, and by speci-
       fying padding requirements and  initialization  sequences.
       This describes ncurses version 6.0 (patch 20170429).

Terminfo Entry Syntax

       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       o   Each  field ends with a comma "," (embedded commas may
           be escaped with a backslash or written as "\054").

       o   White space between fields is ignored.

       o   The first field in a  terminfo  entry  begins  in  the
           first column.

       o   Newlines  and  leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may
           be used for formatting entries for readability.  These
           are removed from parsed entries.

           The  infocmp  -f and -W options rely on this to format
           if-then-else expressions, or to enforce maximum  line-
           width.   The  resulting formatted terminal description
           can be read by tic.

       o   The first field for  each  terminal  gives  the  names
           which  are  known  for  the terminal, separated by "|"

           The first name given is the most  common  abbreviation
           for  the  terminal  (its  primary name), the last name
           given should be a long name fully identifying the ter-
           minal  (see  longname(3x)), and all others are treated
           as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal name.

           X/Open Curses advises that  all  names  but  the  last
           should  be  in  lower  case and contain no blanks; the
           last name may well contain upper case and  blanks  for

           This  implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed
           case in the primary name and  aliases.   If  the  last
           name has no embedded blanks, it allows that to be both
           an alias and a verbose name (but will warn about  this

       o   Lines  beginning  with  a  "#" in the first column are
           treated as comments.

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output
           of captoinfo and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move
           comments so they occur only between entries.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should
       be chosen using the following conventions.  The particular
       piece of hardware making up the  terminal  should  have  a
       root  name,  thus  "hp2621".  This name should not contain
       hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user pref-
       erences,  should  be indicated by appending a hyphen and a
       mode suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column  mode  would  be
       vt100-w.  The following suffixes should be used where pos-

      Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
      -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
      -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
      -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
      -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
      -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
      -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
      -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
      -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
      -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
      -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
      -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
      -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
      -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see  the  term(7)
       manual page.

Terminfo Capabilities Syntax

       The terminfo entry consists of several capabilities, i.e.,
       features that the terminal has, or methods for  exercising
       the terminal's features.

       After  the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal
       entry), there should be one  or  more  capability  fields.
       These  are  boolean,  numeric  or string names with corre-
       sponding values:

       o   Boolean capabilities are true when present, false when
           absent.   There is no explicit value for boolean capa-

       o   Numeric capabilities have a "#"  following  the  name,
           then an unsigned decimal integer value.

       o   String  capabilities  have  a  "=" following the name,
           then an string of characters making up the  capability

           String  capabilities can be split into multiple lines,
           just as the fields comprising a terminal entry can  be
           split  into  multiple  lines.   While  blanks  between
           fields are ignored, blanks embedded  within  a  string
           value  are  retained,  except  for leading blanks on a

       Any capability can be canceled, i.e., suppressed from  the
       terminal entry, by following its name with "@" rather than
       a capability value.

Similar Terminals

       If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant)
       can  be  defined  as  being just like the other (the base)
       with certain exceptions.  In the definition of  the  vari-
       ant,  the string capability use can be given with the name
       of the base terminal:

       o   The capabilities given before use  override  those  in
           the base type named by use.

       o   If  there  are  multiple  use  capabilities,  they are
           merged in reverse order.  That is, the  rightmost  use
           reference  is  processed  first,  then  the one to its
           left, and so forth.

       o   Capabilities given explicitly in  the  entry  override
           those brought in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of
       the use reference that imports it, where xx is  the  capa-
       bility.  For example, the entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines  a  2621-nl  that  does  not have the smkx or rmkx
       capabilities, and hence does not turn on the function  key
       labels  when in visual mode.  This is useful for different
       modes for a terminal, or for different user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain  canceled  capabili-
       ties,  which have the same effect as if those cancels were
       inline in the using terminal entry.

Predefined Capabilities

       The following is a  complete  table  of  the  capabilities
       included  in a terminfo description block and available to
       terminfo-using code.  In each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer  (at  the
       terminfo level) accesses the capability.

       The  capname  is  the  short  name used in the text of the
       database, and is used by a person updating  the  database.
       Whenever  possible,  capnames are chosen to be the same as
       or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded
       by  ECMA-48,  which uses identical or very similar names).
       Semantics are also intended to match those of the specifi-

       The  termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some
       capabilities are new, and have names which termcap did not

       Capability  names have no hard length limit, but an infor-
       mal limit of 5 characters has been adopted  to  keep  them
       short  and  to  allow  the tabs in the source file Caps to
       line up nicely.

       Finally, the description  field  attempts  to  convey  the
       semantics  of  the capability.  You may find some codes in
       the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the  string
              is passed through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates  that  padding  may vary in proportion to
              the number of lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

               Variable          Cap-   TCap     Description
               Booleans          name   Code
       auto_left_margin          bw     bw   cub1 wraps from col-
                                             umn 0 to last column
       auto_right_margin         am     am   terminal has auto-
                                             matic margins
       back_color_erase          bce    ut   screen erased with
                                             background color
       can_change                ccc    cc   terminal can re-
                                             define existing col-
       ceol_standout_glitch      xhp    xs   standout not erased
                                             by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch           xhpa   YA   only positive motion
                                             for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res           cpix   YF   changing character
                                             pitch changes reso-
       cr_cancels_micro_mode     crxm   YB   using cr turns off
                                             micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso      xt     xt   tabs destructive,
                                             magic so char
       eat_newline_glitch        xenl   xn   newline ignored
                                             after 80 cols (con-
       erase_overstrike          eo     eo   can erase over-
                                             strikes with a blank
       generic_type              gn     gn   generic line type
       hard_copy                 hc     hc   hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor               chts   HC   cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key              km     km   Has a meta key
                                             (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel           daisy  YC   printer needs opera-
                                             tor to change char-
                                             acter set
       has_status_line           hs     hs   has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation  hls    hl   terminal uses only
                                             HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch        in     in   insert mode distin-
                                             guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res           lpix   YG   changing line pitch
                                             changes resolution
       memory_above              da     da   display may be
                                             retained above the
       memory_below              db     db   display may be
                                             retained below the
       move_insert_mode          mir    mi   safe to move while
                                             in insert mode
       move_standout_mode        msgr   ms   safe to move while
                                             in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff            nxon   nx   padding will not
                                             work, xon/xoff
       no_esc_ctlc               xsb    xb   beehive (f1=escape,
                                             f2=ctrl C)

       no_pad_char               npc    NP   pad character does
                                             not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region    ndscr  ND   scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup             nrrmc  NR   smcup does not
                                             reverse rmcup
       over_strike               os     os   terminal can over-
       prtr_silent               mc5i   5i   printer will not
                                             echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch           xvpa   YD   only positive motion
                                             for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin    sam    YE   printing in last
                                             column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok        eslok  es   escape can be used
                                             on the status line
       tilde_glitch              hz     hz   cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline     ul     ul   underline character
       xon_xoff                  xon    xo   terminal uses
                                             xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

               Variable          Cap-   TCap     Description
                Numeric          name   Code
       columns                   cols   co   number of columns in
                                             a line
       init_tabs                 it     it   tabs initially every
                                             # spaces
       label_height              lh     lh   rows in each label
       label_width               lw     lw   columns in each
       lines                     lines  li   number of lines on
                                             screen or page
       lines_of_memory           lm     lm   lines of memory if >
                                             line. 0 means varies
       magic_cookie_glitch       xmc    sg   number of blank
                                             characters left by
                                             smso or rmso
       max_attributes            ma     ma   maximum combined
                                             attributes terminal
                                             can handle
       max_colors                colors Co   maximum number of
                                             colors on screen
       max_pairs                 pairs  pa   maximum number of
                                             color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows           wnum   MW   maximum number of
                                             definable windows
       no_color_video            ncv    NC   video attributes
                                             that cannot be used
                                             with colors
       num_labels                nlab   Nl   number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate         pb     pb   lowest baud rate
                                             where padding needed
       virtual_terminal          vt     vt   virtual terminal
                                             number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line         wsl    ws   number of columns in
                                             status line

       The  following  numeric  capabilities  are  present in the
       SVr4.0 term structure, but are not yet documented  in  the
       man page.  They came in with SVr4's printer support.

               Variable          Cap-   TCap     Description
                Numeric          name   Code
       bit_image_entwining       bitwin Yo   number of passes for
                                             each bit-image row
       bit_image_type            bitype Yp   type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity           bufsz  Ya   numbers of bytes
                                             buffered before
       buttons                   btns   BT   number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing          spinh  Yc   spacing of dots hor-
                                             izontally in dots
                                             per inch
       dot_vert_spacing          spinv  Yb   spacing of pins ver-
                                             tically in pins per
       max_micro_address         maddr  Yd   maximum value in
       max_micro_jump            mjump  Ye   maximum value in
       micro_col_size            mcs    Yf   character step size
                                             when in micro mode
       micro_line_size           mls    Yg   line step size when
                                             in micro mode
       number_of_pins            npins  Yh   numbers of pins in
       output_res_char           orc    Yi   horizontal resolu-
                                             tion in units per
       output_res_horz_inch      orhi   Yk   horizontal resolu-
                                             tion in units per
       output_res_line           orl    Yj   vertical resolution
                                             in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch      orvi   Yl   vertical resolution
                                             in units per inch
       print_rate                cps    Ym   print rate in char-
                                             acters per second
       wide_char_size            widcs  Yn   character step size
                                             when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

               Variable          Cap-   TCap     Description
                String           name   Code
       acs_chars                 acsc   ac   graphics charset
                                             pairs, based on
       back_tab                  cbt    bt   back tab (P)
       bell                      bel    bl   audible signal
                                             (bell) (P)
       carriage_return           cr     cr   carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch         cpi    ZA   Change number of
                                             characters per inch
                                             to #1
       change_line_pitch         lpi    ZB   Change number of
                                             lines per inch to #1

       change_res_horz           chr    ZC   Change horizontal
                                             resolution to #1

       change_res_vert           cvr    ZD   Change vertical res-
                                             olution to #1
       change_scroll_region      csr    cs   change region to
                                             line #1 to line #2
       char_padding              rmp    rP   like ip but when in
                                             insert mode
       clear_all_tabs            tbc    ct   clear all tab stops
       clear_margins             mgc    MC   clear right and left
                                             soft margins
       clear_screen              clear  cl   clear screen and
                                             home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol                   el1    cb   Clear to beginning
                                             of line
       clr_eol                   el     ce   clear to end of line
       clr_eos                   ed     cd   clear to end of
                                             screen (P*)
       column_address            hpa    ch   horizontal position
                                             #1, absolute (P)
       command_character         cmdch  CC   terminal settable
                                             cmd character in
                                             prototype !?
       create_window             cwin   CW   define a window #1
                                             from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address            cup    cm   move to row #1 col-
                                             umns #2
       cursor_down               cud1   do   down one line
       cursor_home               home   ho   home cursor (if no
       cursor_invisible          civis  vi   make cursor invisi-
       cursor_left               cub1   le   move left one space
       cursor_mem_address        mrcup  CM   memory relative cur-
                                             sor addressing, move
                                             to row #1 columns #2
       cursor_normal             cnorm  ve   make cursor appear
                                             normal (undo
       cursor_right              cuf1   nd   non-destructive
                                             space (move right
                                             one space)
       cursor_to_ll              ll     ll   last line, first
                                             column (if no cup)
       cursor_up                 cuu1   up   up one line
       cursor_visible            cvvis  vs   make cursor very
       define_char               defc   ZE   Define a character
                                             #1, #2 dots wide,
                                             descender #3
       delete_character          dch1   dc   delete character
       delete_line               dl1    dl   delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                dial   DI   dial number #1
       dis_status_line           dsl    ds   disable status line
       display_clock             dclk   DK   display clock
       down_half_line            hd     hd   half a line down
       ena_acs                   enacs  eA   enable alternate
                                             char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode    smacs  as   start alternate
                                             character set (P)

       enter_am_mode             smam   SA   turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode          blink  mb   turn on blinking

       enter_bold_mode           bold   md   turn on bold (extra
                                             bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode             smcup  ti   string to start pro-
                                             grams using cup
       enter_delete_mode         smdc   dm   enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode            dim    mh   turn on half-bright
       enter_doublewide_mode     swidm  ZF   Enter double-wide
       enter_draft_quality       sdrfq  ZG   Enter draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode         smir   im   enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode        sitm   ZH   Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode       slm    ZI   Start leftward car-
                                             riage motion
       enter_micro_mode          smicm  ZJ   Start micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality snlq   ZK   Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality      snrmq  ZL   Enter normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode      prot   mp   turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode        rev    mr   turn on reverse
                                             video mode
       enter_secure_mode         invis  mk   turn on blank mode
                                             (characters invisi-
       enter_shadow_mode         sshm   ZM   Enter shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode       smso   so   begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode      ssubm  ZN   Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode    ssupm  ZO   Enter superscript
       enter_underline_mode      smul   us   begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode         sum    ZP   Start upward car-
                                             riage motion
       enter_xon_mode            smxon  SX   turn on xon/xoff
       erase_chars               ech    ec   erase #1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode     rmacs  ae   end alternate char-
                                             acter set (P)
       exit_am_mode              rmam   RA   turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode       sgr0   me   turn off all
       exit_ca_mode              rmcup  te   strings to end pro-
                                             grams using cup
       exit_delete_mode          rmdc   ed   end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode      rwidm  ZQ   End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode          rmir   ei   exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode         ritm   ZR   End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode        rlm    ZS   End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode           rmicm  ZT   End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode          rshm   ZU   End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode        rmso   se   exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode       rsubm  ZV   End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode     rsupm  ZW   End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode       rmul   ue   exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode          rum    ZX   End reverse charac-
                                             ter motion
       exit_xon_mode             rmxon  RX   turn off xon/xoff

       fixed_pause               pause  PA   pause for 2-3 sec-
       flash_hook                hook   fh   flash switch hook
       flash_screen              flash  vb   visible bell (may
                                             not move cursor)
       form_feed                 ff     ff   hardcopy terminal
                                             page eject (P*)
       from_status_line          fsl    fs   return from status
       goto_window               wingo  WG   go to window #1
       hangup                    hup    HU   hang-up phone
       init_1string              is1    i1   initialization
       init_2string              is2    is   initialization
       init_3string              is3    i3   initialization
       init_file                 if     if   name of initializa-
                                             tion file
       init_prog                 iprog  iP   path name of program
                                             for initialization
       initialize_color          initc  Ic   initialize color #1
                                             to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair           initp  Ip   Initialize color
                                             pair #1 to
       insert_character          ich1   ic   insert character (P)
       insert_line               il1    al   insert line (P*)
       insert_padding            ip     ip   insert padding after
                                             inserted character
       key_a1                    ka1    K1   upper left of keypad
       key_a3                    ka3    K3   upper right of key-
       key_b2                    kb2    K2   center of keypad
       key_backspace             kbs    kb   backspace key
       key_beg                   kbeg   @1   begin key
       key_btab                  kcbt   kB   back-tab key
       key_c1                    kc1    K4   lower left of keypad
       key_c3                    kc3    K5   lower right of key-
       key_cancel                kcan   @2   cancel key
       key_catab                 ktbc   ka   clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                 kclr   kC   clear-screen or
                                             erase key
       key_close                 kclo   @3   close key
       key_command               kcmd   @4   command key
       key_copy                  kcpy   @5   copy key
       key_create                kcrt   @6   create key
       key_ctab                  kctab  kt   clear-tab key
       key_dc                    kdch1  kD   delete-character key
       key_dl                    kdl1   kL   delete-line key
       key_down                  kcud1  kd   down-arrow key
       key_eic                   krmir  kM   sent by rmir or smir
                                             in insert mode
       key_end                   kend   @7   end key
       key_enter                 kent   @8   enter/send key
       key_eol                   kel    kE   clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos                   ked    kS   clear-to-end-of-
                                             screen key
       key_exit                  kext   @9   exit key
       key_f0                    kf0    k0   F0 function key
       key_f1                    kf1    k1   F1 function key
       key_f10                   kf10   k;   F10 function key
       key_f11                   kf11   F1   F11 function key

       key_f12                   kf12   F2   F12 function key
       key_f13                   kf13   F3   F13 function key
       key_f14                   kf14   F4   F14 function key
       key_f15                   kf15   F5   F15 function key
       key_f16                   kf16   F6   F16 function key
       key_f17                   kf17   F7   F17 function key
       key_f18                   kf18   F8   F18 function key
       key_f19                   kf19   F9   F19 function key
       key_f2                    kf2    k2   F2 function key
       key_f20                   kf20   FA   F20 function key
       key_f21                   kf21   FB   F21 function key
       key_f22                   kf22   FC   F22 function key
       key_f23                   kf23   FD   F23 function key
       key_f24                   kf24   FE   F24 function key
       key_f25                   kf25   FF   F25 function key
       key_f26                   kf26   FG   F26 function key
       key_f27                   kf27   FH   F27 function key
       key_f28                   kf28   FI   F28 function key
       key_f29                   kf29   FJ   F29 function key
       key_f3                    kf3    k3   F3 function key
       key_f30                   kf30   FK   F30 function key
       key_f31                   kf31   FL   F31 function key
       key_f32                   kf32   FM   F32 function key
       key_f33                   kf33   FN   F33 function key
       key_f34                   kf34   FO   F34 function key
       key_f35                   kf35   FP   F35 function key
       key_f36                   kf36   FQ   F36 function key
       key_f37                   kf37   FR   F37 function key
       key_f38                   kf38   FS   F38 function key
       key_f39                   kf39   FT   F39 function key
       key_f4                    kf4    k4   F4 function key
       key_f40                   kf40   FU   F40 function key
       key_f41                   kf41   FV   F41 function key
       key_f42                   kf42   FW   F42 function key
       key_f43                   kf43   FX   F43 function key
       key_f44                   kf44   FY   F44 function key
       key_f45                   kf45   FZ   F45 function key
       key_f46                   kf46   Fa   F46 function key
       key_f47                   kf47   Fb   F47 function key
       key_f48                   kf48   Fc   F48 function key
       key_f49                   kf49   Fd   F49 function key
       key_f5                    kf5    k5   F5 function key
       key_f50                   kf50   Fe   F50 function key
       key_f51                   kf51   Ff   F51 function key
       key_f52                   kf52   Fg   F52 function key
       key_f53                   kf53   Fh   F53 function key
       key_f54                   kf54   Fi   F54 function key
       key_f55                   kf55   Fj   F55 function key
       key_f56                   kf56   Fk   F56 function key
       key_f57                   kf57   Fl   F57 function key
       key_f58                   kf58   Fm   F58 function key
       key_f59                   kf59   Fn   F59 function key
       key_f6                    kf6    k6   F6 function key
       key_f60                   kf60   Fo   F60 function key
       key_f61                   kf61   Fp   F61 function key
       key_f62                   kf62   Fq   F62 function key
       key_f63                   kf63   Fr   F63 function key
       key_f7                    kf7    k7   F7 function key
       key_f8                    kf8    k8   F8 function key
       key_f9                    kf9    k9   F9 function key
       key_find                  kfnd   @0   find key
       key_help                  khlp   %1   help key
       key_home                  khome  kh   home key
       key_ic                    kich1  kI   insert-character key
       key_il                    kil1   kA   insert-line key
       key_left                  kcub1  kl   left-arrow key

       key_ll                    kll    kH   lower-left key (home
       key_mark                  kmrk   %2   mark key
       key_message               kmsg   %3   message key
       key_move                  kmov   %4   move key
       key_next                  knxt   %5   next key
       key_npage                 knp    kN   next-page key
       key_open                  kopn   %6   open key
       key_options               kopt   %7   options key
       key_ppage                 kpp    kP   previous-page key
       key_previous              kprv   %8   previous key
       key_print                 kprt   %9   print key
       key_redo                  krdo   %0   redo key
       key_reference             kref   &1   reference key
       key_refresh               krfr   &2   refresh key
       key_replace               krpl   &3   replace key
       key_restart               krst   &4   restart key
       key_resume                kres   &5   resume key
       key_right                 kcuf1  kr   right-arrow key
       key_save                  ksav   &6   save key
       key_sbeg                  kBEG   &9   shifted begin key
       key_scancel               kCAN   &0   shifted cancel key
       key_scommand              kCMD   *1   shifted command key
       key_scopy                 kCPY   *2   shifted copy key
       key_screate               kCRT   *3   shifted create key
       key_sdc                   kDC    *4   shifted delete-char-
                                             acter key
       key_sdl                   kDL    *5   shifted delete-line
       key_select                kslt   *6   select key
       key_send                  kEND   *7   shifted end key
       key_seol                  kEOL   *8   shifted clear-to-
                                             end-of-line key
       key_sexit                 kEXT   *9   shifted exit key
       key_sf                    kind   kF   scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                 kFND   *0   shifted find key
       key_shelp                 kHLP   #1   shifted help key
       key_shome                 kHOM   #2   shifted home key
       key_sic                   kIC    #3   shifted insert-char-
                                             acter key
       key_sleft                 kLFT   #4   shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage              kMSG   %a   shifted message key
       key_smove                 kMOV   %b   shifted move key
       key_snext                 kNXT   %c   shifted next key
       key_soptions              kOPT   %d   shifted options key
       key_sprevious             kPRV   %e   shifted previous key
       key_sprint                kPRT   %f   shifted print key
       key_sr                    kri    kR   scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                 kRDO   %g   shifted redo key
       key_sreplace              kRPL   %h   shifted replace key
       key_sright                kRIT   %i   shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume                kRES   %j   shifted resume key
       key_ssave                 kSAV   !1   shifted save key
       key_ssuspend              kSPD   !2   shifted suspend key
       key_stab                  khts   kT   set-tab key
       key_sundo                 kUND   !3   shifted undo key
       key_suspend               kspd   &7   suspend key
       key_undo                  kund   &8   undo key
       key_up                    kcuu1  ku   up-arrow key
       keypad_local              rmkx   ke   leave 'key-
                                             board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit               smkx   ks   enter 'key-
                                             board_transmit' mode

       lab_f0                    lf0    l0   label on function
                                             key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1                    lf1    l1   label on function
                                             key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10                   lf10   la   label on function
                                             key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                    lf2    l2   label on function
                                             key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                    lf3    l3   label on function
                                             key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4                    lf4    l4   label on function
                                             key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5                    lf5    l5   label on function
                                             key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                    lf6    l6   label on function
                                             key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                    lf7    l7   label on function
                                             key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                    lf8    l8   label on function
                                             key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                    lf9    l9   label on function
                                             key f9 if not f9
       label_format              fln    Lf   label format
       label_off                 rmln   LF   turn off soft labels
       label_on                  smln   LO   turn on soft labels
       meta_off                  rmm    mo   turn off meta mode
       meta_on                   smm    mm   turn on meta mode
                                             (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address      mhpa   ZY   Like column_address
                                             in micro mode
       micro_down                mcud1  ZZ   Like cursor_down in
                                             micro mode
       micro_left                mcub1  Za   Like cursor_left in
                                             micro mode
       micro_right               mcuf1  Zb   Like cursor_right in
                                             micro mode
       micro_row_address         mvpa   Zc   Like row_address #1
                                             in micro mode
       micro_up                  mcuu1  Zd   Like cursor_up in
                                             micro mode
       newline                   nel    nw   newline (behave like
                                             cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins             porder Ze   Match software bits
                                             to print-head pins
       orig_colors               oc     oc   Set all color pairs
                                             to the original ones
       orig_pair                 op     op   Set default pair to
                                             its original value
       pad_char                  pad    pc   padding char
                                             (instead of null)
       parm_dch                  dch    DC   delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line          dl     DL   delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor          cud    DO   down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro           mcud   Zf   Like parm_down_cur-
                                             sor in micro mode
       parm_ich                  ich    IC   insert #1 characters
       parm_index                indn   SF   scroll forward #1
                                             lines (P)
       parm_insert_line          il     AL   insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor          cub    LE   move #1 characters
                                             to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro           mcub   Zg   Like parm_left_cur-
                                             sor in micro mode

       parm_right_cursor         cuf    RI   move #1 characters
                                             to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro          mcuf   Zh   Like parm_right_cur-
                                             sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex               rin    SR   scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor            cuu    UP   up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro             mcuu   Zi   Like parm_up_cursor
                                             in micro mode
       pkey_key                  pfkey  pk   program function key
                                             #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local                pfloc  pl   program function key
                                             #1 to execute string
       pkey_xmit                 pfx    px   program function key
                                             #1 to transmit
                                             string #2
       plab_norm                 pln    pn   program label #1 to
                                             show string #2
       print_screen              mc0    ps   print contents of
       prtr_non                  mc5p   pO   turn on printer for
                                             #1 bytes
       prtr_off                  mc4    pf   turn off printer
       prtr_on                   mc5    po   turn on printer
       pulse                     pulse  PU   select pulse dialing
       quick_dial                qdial  QD   dial number #1 with-
                                             out checking
       remove_clock              rmclk  RC   remove clock
       repeat_char               rep    rp   repeat char #1 #2
                                             times (P*)
       req_for_input             rfi    RF   send next input char
                                             (for ptys)
       reset_1string             rs1    r1   reset string
       reset_2string             rs2    r2   reset string
       reset_3string             rs3    r3   reset string
       reset_file                rf     rf   name of reset file
       restore_cursor            rc     rc   restore cursor to
                                             position of last
       row_address               vpa    cv   vertical position #1
                                             absolute (P)
       save_cursor               sc     sc   save current cursor
                                             position (P)
       scroll_forward            ind    sf   scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse            ri     sr   scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set           scs    Zj   Select character
                                             set, #1
       set_attributes            sgr    sa   define video
                                             attributes #1-#9
       set_background            setb   Sb   Set background color
       set_bottom_margin         smgb   Zk   Set bottom margin at
                                             current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm    smgbp  Zl   Set bottom margin at
                                             line #1 or (if smgtp
                                             is not given) #2
                                             lines from bottom
       set_clock                 sclk   SC   set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                             mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair            scp    sp   Set current color
                                             pair to #1
       set_foreground            setf   Sf   Set foreground color

       set_left_margin           smgl   ML   set left soft margin
                                             at current column.
                                             See smgl. (ML is not
                                             in BSD termcap).
       set_left_margin_parm      smglp  Zm   Set left (right)
                                             margin at column #1
       set_right_margin          smgr   MR   set right soft mar-
                                             gin at current col-
       set_right_margin_parm     smgrp  Zn   Set right margin at
                                             column #1
       set_tab                   hts    st   set a tab in every
                                             row, current columns
       set_top_margin            smgt   Zo   Set top margin at
                                             current line
       set_top_margin_parm       smgtp  Zp   Set top (bottom)
                                             margin at row #1
       set_window                wind   wi   current window is
                                             lines #1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image           sbim   Zq   Start printing bit
                                             image graphics
       start_char_set_def        scsd   Zr   Start character set
                                             definition #1, with
                                             #2 characters in the
       stop_bit_image            rbim   Zs   Stop printing bit
                                             image graphics
       stop_char_set_def         rcsd   Zt   End definition of
                                             character set #1
       subscript_characters      subcs  Zu   List of subscript-
                                             able characters
       superscript_characters    supcs  Zv   List of superscript-
                                             able characters
       tab                       ht     ta   tab to next 8-space
                                             hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr            docr   Zw   Printing any of
                                             these characters
                                             causes CR
       to_status_line            tsl    ts   move to status line,
                                             column #1
       tone                      tone   TO   select touch tone
       underline_char            uc     uc   underline char and
                                             move past it
       up_half_line              hu     hu   half a line up
       user0                     u0     u0   User string #0
       user1                     u1     u1   User string #1
       user2                     u2     u2   User string #2
       user3                     u3     u3   User string #3
       user4                     u4     u4   User string #4
       user5                     u5     u5   User string #5
       user6                     u6     u6   User string #6
       user7                     u7     u7   User string #7
       user8                     u8     u8   User string #8
       user9                     u9     u9   User string #9
       wait_tone                 wait   WA   wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character            xoffc  XF   XOFF character
       xon_character             xonc   XN   XON character
       zero_motion               zerom  Zx   No motion for subse-
                                             quent character

       The  following  string  capabilities  are  present  in the
       SVr4.0 term structure, but were originally not  documented
       in the man page.

               Variable          Cap-     TCap    Description
                String           name     Code
       alt_scancode_esc          scesa    S8   Alternate escape
                                               for scancode emu-
       bit_image_carriage_return bicr     Yv   Move to beginning
                                               of same row
       bit_image_newline         binel    Zz   Move to next row
                                               of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat          birep    Xy   Repeat bit image
                                               cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names            csnm     Zy   Produce #1'th item
                                               from list of char-
                                               acter set names
       code_set_init             csin     ci   Init sequence for
                                               multiple codesets
       color_names               colornm  Yw   Give name for
                                               color #1
       define_bit_image_region   defbi    Yx   Define rectangular
                                               bit image region
       device_type               devt     dv   Indicate lan-
                                               guage/codeset sup-
       display_pc_char           dispc    S1   Display PC charac-
                                               ter #1
       end_bit_image_region      endbi    Yy   End a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode     smpch    S2   Enter PC character
                                               display mode
       enter_scancode_mode       smsc     S4   Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode      rmpch    S3   Exit PC character
                                               display mode
       exit_scancode_mode        rmsc     S5   Exit PC scancode
       get_mouse                 getm     Gm   Curses should get
                                               button events,
                                               parameter #1 not
       key_mouse                 kmous    Km   Mouse event has
       mouse_info                minfo    Mi   Mouse status
       pc_term_options           pctrm    S6   PC terminal
       pkey_plab                 pfxl     xl   Program function
                                               key #1 to type
                                               string #2 and show
                                               string #3
       req_mouse_pos             reqmp    RQ   Request mouse
       scancode_escape           scesc    S7   Escape for scan-
                                               code emulation
       set0_des_seq              s0ds     s0   Shift to codeset 0
                                               (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq              s1ds     s1   Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq              s2ds     s2   Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq              s3ds     s3   Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background          setab    AB   Set background
                                               color to #1, using
                                               ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground          setaf    AF   Set foreground
                                               color to #1, using
                                               ANSI escape
       set_color_band            setcolor Yz   Change to ribbon
                                               color #1

       set_lr_margin             smglr    ML   Set both left and
                                               right margins to
                                               #1, #2.  (ML is
                                               not in BSD term-
       set_page_length           slines   YZ   Set page length to
                                               #1 lines
       set_tb_margin             smgtb    MT   Sets both top and
                                               bottom margins to
                                               #1, #2

        The  XSI  Curses  standard added these hardcopy capabili-
        ties.  They were used in some post-4.1 versions of System
        V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI,
        the ncurses termcap names for them are invented.  Accord-
        ing  to  the  XSI  Curses  standard, they have no termcap
        names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they
        may  not  be  binary-compatible  with  System  V terminfo
        entries after SVr4.1; beware!

                Variable         Cap-   TCap     Description
                 String          name   Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode ehhlm  Xh   Enter horizontal
                                             highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode       elhlm  Xl   Enter left highlight
        enter_low_hl_mode        elohlm Xo   Enter low highlight
        enter_right_hl_mode      erhlm  Xr   Enter right high-
                                             light mode
        enter_top_hl_mode        ethlm  Xt   Enter top highlight
        enter_vertical_hl_mode   evhlm  Xv   Enter vertical high-
                                             light mode
        set_a_attributes         sgr1   sA   Define second set of
                                             video attributes
        set_pglen_inch           slengthYI   Set page length to
                                             #1 hundredth of an
                                             inch (some implemen-
                                             tations use sL for

User-Defined Capabilities

       The preceding section listed the predefined  capabilities.
       They  deal  with  some  special  features for terminals no
       longer (or possibly never) produced.   Occasionally  there
       are  special features of newer terminals which are awkward
       or impossible to represent by reusing the predefined capa-

       ncurses addresses this limitation by allowing user-defined
       capabilities.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x
       option  for  this  purpose.   When  -x  is set, tic treats
       unknown capabilities as user-defined.   That  is,  if  tic
       encounters  a capability name which it does not recognize,
       it infers its type (boolean, number or  string)  from  the
       syntax and makes an extended table entry for that capabil-
       ity.   The  use_extended_names(3x)  function  makes   this
       information  conditionally available to applications.  The
       ncurses library provides the  data  leaving  most  of  the
       behavior to applications:

       o   User-defined capability strings whose name begins with
           "k" are treated as function keys.

       o   The types (boolean, number, string) determined by  tic
           can be inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       o   If  the  capability name happens to be two characters,
           the capability is also available through  the  termcap

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not
       use a predefined set of capabilities, in practice  it  has
       been  limited  to  the  capabilities  defined  by terminfo
       implementations.  As  a  rule,  user-defined  capabilities
       intended for use by termcap applications should be limited
       to booleans and numbers to avoid  running  past  the  1023
       byte  limit  assumed  by termcap implementations and their
       applications.  In particular, providing extended  sets  of
       function  keys  (past the 60 numbered keys and the handful
       of special named keys) is best done using the longer names
       available using terminfo.

A Sample Entry

       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal,
       is representative of what a terminfo entry  for  a  modern
       terminal typically looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries  may continue onto multiple lines by placing white
       space at the beginning of  each  line  except  the  first.
       Comments  may  be  included  on  lines beginning with "#".
       Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

       o   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the  terminal
           has some particular feature,

       o   numeric  capabilities  giving the size of the terminal
           or the size of particular delays, and

       o   string capabilities, which give a sequence  which  can
           be used to perform particular terminal operations.

Types of Capabilities

       All  capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that
       ANSI-standard terminals have automatic margins  (i.e.,  an
       automatic  return  and line-feed when the end of a line is
       reached) is indicated by the  capability  am.   Hence  the
       description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities are
       followed by the character "#" and then a  positive  value.
       Thus  cols, which indicates the number of columns the ter-
       minal has, gives the value  "80"  for  ansi.   Values  for
       numeric capabilities may be specified in decimal, octal or
       hexadecimal, using the C programming language  conventions
       (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,  string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to
       end of line sequence) are given by the two-character code,
       an  "=",  and  then  a string ending at the next following

       A number of escape sequences are provided  in  the  string
       valued capabilities for easy encoding of characters there:

       o   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       o   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       o   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s


             newline,  line-feed,  return,  tab, backspace, form-
             feed, and space,


       X/Open Curses does not say what "appropriate x" might  be.
       In  practice, that is a printable ASCII graphic character.
       The special case "^?" is interpreted as DEL (127).  In all
       other  cases, the character value is AND'd with 0x1f, map-
       ping to ASCII control codes in the range 0 through 31.

       Other escapes include

       o   \^ for ^,

       o   \\ for \,

       o   \, for comma,

       o   \: for :,

       o   and \0 for null.

           \0 will produce  \200,  which  does  not  terminate  a
           string  but behaves as a null character on most termi-
           nals, providing CS7 is specified.  See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain  binary  com-
           patibility  of  the compiled terminfo files with other
           implementations, e.g., the SVr4 systems,  which  docu-
           ment  this.   Compiled  terminfo files use null-termi-
           nated strings, with no lengths.  Modifying this  would
           require a new binary format, which would not work with
           other implementations.

       Finally, characters may be given  as  three  octal  digits
       after a \.

       A  delay  in  milliseconds may appear anywhere in a string
       capability, enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in  el=\EK$<5>,
       and  padding  characters are supplied by tputs(3x) to pro-
       vide this delay.

       o   The delay must be a number with at  most  one  decimal
           place of precision; it may be followed by suffixes "*"
           or "/" or both.

       o   A "*" indicates that the padding required  is  propor-
           tional  to  the number of lines affected by the opera-
           tion, and the amount given  is  the  per-affected-unit
           padding  required.   (In the case of insert character,
           the factor is still the number of lines affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the  device  has  the
           xon  capability;  it  is used for cost computation but
           does not trigger delays.

       o   A "/" suffix indicates that the padding  is  mandatory
           and forces a delay of the given number of milliseconds
           even on devices for which xon is present  to  indicate
           flow control.

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must be commented out.
       To do this, put a period before the capability name.   For
       example, see the second ind in the example above.

Fetching Compiled Descriptions

       The  ncurses library searches for terminal descriptions in
       several places.  It uses only the first description found.
       The  library  has  a  compiled-in list of places to search
       which can be overridden by environment variables.   Before
       starting  to  search, ncurses eliminates duplicates in its
       search list.

       o   If the environment variable TERMINFO  is  set,  it  is
           interpreted  as the pathname of a directory containing
           the compiled description you  are  working  on.   Only
           that directory is searched.

       o   If  TERMINFO  is not set, ncurses will instead look in
           the directory $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled  descrip-

       o   Next,  if  the  environment  variable TERMINFO_DIRS is
           set, ncurses will interpret the contents of that vari-
           able  as  a  list  of  colon-separated directories (or
           database files) to be searched.

           An empty directory name (i.e., if the variable  begins
           or  ends with a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is
           interpreted as  the  system  location  /usr/share/ter-

       o   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           o   a           list           of          directories
               minfo), and

           o   the system terminfo directory, /usr/share/terminfo
               (the compiled-in default).

Preparing Descriptions

       We now outline how to prepare descriptions  of  terminals.
       The  most  effective way to prepare a terminal description
       is by imitating the description of a similar  terminal  in
       terminfo  and  to  build up a description gradually, using
       partial descriptions with vi or some other screen-oriented
       program  to  check that they are correct.  Be aware that a
       very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the abil-
       ity  of  the  terminfo  file to describe it or bugs in the
       screen-handling code of the test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the  terminal
       manufacturer did not document it) a severe test is to edit
       a large file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so lines from  the
       middle  of  the screen, then hit the "u" key several times
       quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding is  usu-
       ally  needed.  A similar test can be used for insert char-

Basic Capabilities

       The number of columns on each line  for  the  terminal  is
       given  by the cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is
       a CRT, then the number of lines on the screen is given  by
       the lines capability.  If the terminal wraps around to the
       beginning of the next line when it reaches the right  mar-
       gin, then it should have the am capability.  If the termi-
       nal can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the  home
       position,  then this is given by the clear string capabil-
       ity.  If the terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing  a
       position  when  a character is struck over) then it should
       have the os capability.  If the  terminal  is  a  printing
       terminal,  with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.
       (os applies to storage scope terminals, such as  TEKTRONIX
       4010  series, as well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If
       there is a code to move the cursor to the left edge of the
       current row, give this as cr.  (Normally this will be car-
       riage return, control M.)  If there is a code  to  produce
       an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If  there is a code to move the cursor one position to the
       left (such as backspace) that capability should  be  given
       as  cub1.   Similarly, codes to move to the right, up, and
       down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.  These local
       cursor  motions  should not alter the text they pass over,
       for example, you would not normally use  "cuf1= "  because
       the space would erase the character moved over.

       A  very  important  point  here  is  that the local cursor
       motions encoded in terminfo are undefined at the left  and
       top  edges  of  a  CRT  terminal.   Programs  should never
       attempt to backspace around the left edge,  unless  bw  is
       given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In
       order to scroll text up, a program will go to  the  bottom
       left corner of the screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner
       of the screen and sends the  ri  (reverse  index)  string.
       The  strings  ind  and  ri are undefined when not on their
       respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn
       and rin which have the same semantics as ind and ri except
       that they take one parameter, and scroll that many  lines.
       They  are also undefined except at the appropriate edge of
       the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks  at  the
       right  edge  of  the  screen when text is output, but this
       does not necessarily apply to a cuf1 from the last column.
       The  only local motion which is defined from the left edge
       is if bw is given, then a cub1 from  the  left  edge  will
       move  to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not
       given, the effect is undefined.  This is useful for  draw-
       ing  a box around the edge of the screen, for example.  If
       the terminal has switch selectable automatic margins,  the
       terminfo  file  usually assumes that this is on; i.e., am.
       If the terminal has a command which  moves  to  the  first
       column  of the next line, that command can be given as nel
       (newline).  It does not matter if the command  clears  the
       remainder  of  the current line, so if the terminal has no
       cr and lf it may still be possible to craft a working  nel
       out of one or both of them.

       These  capabilities  suffice  to  describe  hard-copy  and
       "glass-tty" terminals.  Thus  the  model  33  teletype  is
       described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

Parameterized Strings

       Cursor  addressing  and other strings requiring parameters
       in the terminal are described by  a  parameterized  string
       capability,  with  printf-like  escapes  such as %x in it.
       For example, to address the cursor, the cup capability  is
       given, using two parameters: the row and column to address
       to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to
       the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen
       memory.)  If  the  terminal  has  memory  relative  cursor
       addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The  parameter  mechanism uses a stack and special % codes
       to manipulate it.  Typically a sequence will push  one  of
       the  parameters  onto  the stack and then print it in some
       format.  Print (e.g., "%d")  is  a  special  case.   Other
       operations,  including  "%t"  pop  their  operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are often
       necessary, e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs "%"

            as  in  printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a ":"
            to allow the next character to be a "-" flag,  avoid-
            ing interpreting "%-" as an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms  "static"  and  "dynamic"  are misleading.
            Historically, these are simply two different sets  of
            variables,  whose  values are not reset between calls
            to tparm(3x).  However, that fact is  not  documented
            in   other   implementations.   Relying  on  it  will
            adversely impact  portability  to  other  implementa-

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop()
            op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary  operations  (logical  and   bit   complement):
            push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This  forms  an  if-then-else.   The  %e  elsepart is
            optional.  Usually the %? expr part  pushes  a  value
            onto  the stack, and %t pops it from the stack, test-
            ing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero  (false),
            control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the struc-
            ture of if-then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr  can
            be very complicated when written on one line.  The -f
            option splits the string into lines  with  the  parts

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in
       the usual order.  That  is,  to  get  x-5  one  would  use
       "%gx%{5}%-".   %P  and  %g variables are persistent across
       escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12,
       needs  to  be  sent  \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.
       Note that the order of the rows and  columns  is  inverted
       here,  and that the row and column are printed as two dig-
       its.  Thus its cup capability is "cup=6\E&%p2%2dc%p1%2dY".

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent
       preceded  by  a ^T, with the row and column simply encoded
       in binary, "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".  Terminals which  use  "%c"
       need  to  be  able  to backspace the cursor (cub1), and to
       move the cursor up one line on the screen (cuu1).  This is
       necessary  because it is not always safe to transmit \n ^D
       and \r, as the system may change or  discard  them.   (The
       library  routines  dealing  with terminfo set tty modes so
       that tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This
       turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and col-
       umn  offset  by  a  blank  character,  thus  "cup=\E=%p1%'
       '%+%c%p2%'  '%+%c".   After sending "\E=", this pushes the
       first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a space  (32),
       adds  them  (pushing  the sum on the stack in place of the
       two previous values) and outputs that value as  a  charac-
       ter.   Then  the  same  is  done for the second parameter.
       More complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

Cursor Motions

       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very
       upper  left  corner  of  screen) then this can be given as
       home; similarly a fast way of getting to the  lower  left-
       hand  corner can be given as ll; this may involve going up
       with cuu1 from the home position,  but  a  program  should
       never  do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make
       no assumption about the effect of moving up from the  home
       position.   Note  that  the  home  position is the same as
       addressing to (0,0): to the top left corner of the screen,
       not  of  memory.   (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP terminals
       cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor address-
       ing,  these  can be given as single parameter capabilities
       hpa (horizontal position absolute) and vpa (vertical posi-
       tion absolute).  Sometimes these are shorter than the more
       general two parameter sequence (as with  the  hp2645)  and
       can be used in preference to cup.  If there are parameter-
       ized local motions (e.g., move  n  spaces  to  the  right)
       these can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single
       parameter indicating how many spaces to move.   These  are
       primarily  useful  if the terminal does not have cup, such
       as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running
       a program that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter
       and exit this mode can be given as smcup and rmcup.   This
       arises,  for example, from terminals like the Concept with
       more than one page of memory.  If the  terminal  has  only
       memory  relative cursor addressing and not screen relative
       cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed
       into  the terminal for cursor addressing to work properly.
       This is also used for the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets
       the  command character to be the one used by terminfo.  If
       the smcup sequence will not restore the  screen  after  an
       rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

Area Clears

       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the
       end  of  the  line,  leaving  the cursor where it is, this
       should be given as el.  If the terminal can clear from the
       beginning  of  the line to the current position inclusive,
       leaving the cursor where it is, this should  be  given  as
       el1.   If the terminal can clear from the current position
       to the end of the display, then this should  be  given  as
       ed.   Ed  is only defined from the first column of a line.
       (Thus, it can be simulated by a request to delete a  large
       number of lines, if a true ed is not available.)

Insert/delete line and vertical motions

       If  the terminal can open a new blank line before the line
       where the cursor is, this should be given as il1; this  is
       done  only  from the first position of a line.  The cursor
       must then appear on the newly blank line.  If the terminal
       can  delete  the  line  which  the cursor is on, then this
       should be given as dl1; this is done only from  the  first
       position  on  the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and
       dl1 which take a single parameter  and  insert  or  delete
       that many lines can be given as il and dl.

       If  the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the
       vt100) the command to set this can be described  with  the
       csr  capability,  which  takes two parameters: the top and
       bottom lines of the scrolling region.  The cursor position
       is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line
       using csr on a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save
       and  restore  cursor)  commands may be useful for ensuring
       that your synthesized insert/delete string does  not  move
       the  cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3x) library does this
       synthesis  automatically,  so   you   need   not   compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to
       use a combination of index with  the  memory-lock  feature
       found  on some terminals (like the HP-700/90 series, which
       however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom  of  the  screen  can
       also  be  done using ri or ind on many terminals without a
       true insert/delete line, and is often faster even on  ter-
       minals with those features.

       The  boolean  non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each
       scrolling window is effectively a view port on  a  screen-
       sized  canvas.   To  test  for  this  capability, create a
       scrolling region in the middle of the screen, write  some-
       thing  to  the  bottom line, move the cursor to the top of
       the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data
       scrolled  off  the  bottom  of  the  region  by the ri re-
       appears, then scrolling is non-destructive.  System V  and
       XSI  Curses  expect that ind, ri, indn, and rin will simu-
       late destructive scrolling; their  documentation  cautions
       you  not  to  define csr unless this is true.  This curses
       implementation is more liberal and will do explicit erases
       after scrolling if ndsrc is defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part
       of memory, which all commands affect, it should  be  given
       as the parameterized string wind.  The four parameters are
       the starting and ending lines in memory and  the  starting
       and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If  the terminal can retain display memory above, then the
       da capability should be given; if display  memory  can  be
       retained  below,  then db should be given.  These indicate
       that deleting a line  or  scrolling  may  bring  non-blank
       lines  up  from  below  or that scrolling back with ri may
       bring down non-blank lines.

Insert/Delete Character

       There are two basic kinds of  intelligent  terminals  with
       respect  to insert/delete character which can be described
       using terminfo.  The most common  insert/delete  character
       operations  affect only the characters on the current line
       and shift characters off the  end  of  the  line  rigidly.
       Other  terminals,  such  as the Concept 100 and the Perkin
       Elmer Owl, make a distinction between  typed  and  untyped
       blanks  on  the  screen, shifting upon an insert or delete
       only to an untyped blank on the  screen  which  is  either
       eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You  can determine the kind of terminal you have by clear-
       ing the screen and then typing text  separated  by  cursor
       motions.   Type  "abc    def"  using  local cursor motions
       (not spaces) between the "abc" and the "def".  Then  posi-
       tion  the  cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal in
       insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of  the
       line  to shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end,
       then your terminal does not distinguish between blanks and
       untyped  positions.  If the "abc" shifts over to the "def"
       which then move together around the  end  of  the  current
       line  and onto the next as you insert, you have the second
       type of terminal, and should give the capability in, which
       stands for "insert null".

       While  these  are  two  logically separate attributes (one
       line versus multi-line insert mode, and special  treatment
       of  untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert
       mode cannot be described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an  insert
       mode, and terminals which send a simple sequence to open a
       blank position on the current  line.   Give  as  smir  the
       sequence  to  get  into  insert  mode.   Give  as rmir the
       sequence to leave insert  mode.   Now  give  as  ich1  any
       sequence needed to be sent just before sending the charac-
       ter to be inserted.  Most terminals  with  a  true  insert
       mode  will  not give ich1; terminals which send a sequence
       to open a screen position should give it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually  prefer-
       able  to  ich1.   Technically,  you  should  not give both
       unless the terminal actually requires both to be  used  in
       combination.   Accordingly,  some  non-curses applications
       get confused if both are present; the symptom  is  doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement is
       now rare; most ich sequences do not require previous smir,
       and most smir insert modes do not require ich1 before each
       character.  Therefore, the  new  curses  actually  assumes
       this  is the case and uses either rmir/smir or ich/ich1 as
       appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an entry
       to  be  used under new curses for a terminal old enough to
       need both, include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of
       milliseconds  in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence
       which may need to be sent after  an  insert  of  a  single
       character may also be given in ip.  If your terminal needs
       both to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special code
       to  precede  each  inserted character, then both smir/rmir
       and ich1 can be given, and both will  be  used.   The  ich
       capability, with one parameter, n, will repeat the effects
       of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while not
       in insert mode, give this as a number of milliseconds pad-
       ding in rmp.

       It is occasionally  necessary  to  move  around  while  in
       insert  mode  to delete characters on the same line (e.g.,
       if there is a tab after the insertion position).  If  your
       terminal  allows  motion while in insert mode you can give
       the capability mir to speed up  inserting  in  this  case.
       Omitting  mir  will  affect  only  speed.   Some terminals
       (notably Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the way
       their insert mode works.

       Finally,  you  can specify dch1 to delete a single charac-
       ter, dch with one parameter, n, to  delete  n  characters,
       and  delete mode by giving smdc and rmdc to enter and exit
       delete mode (any mode the terminal needs to be  placed  in
       for dch1 to work).

       A  command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting
       n blanks without moving the cursor) can be  given  as  ech
       with one parameter.

Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells

       If  your  terminal  has  one  or  more  kinds  of  display
       attributes, these can be represented in a number  of  dif-
       ferent ways.  You should choose one display form as stand-
       out mode, representing a good, high contrast, easy-on-the-
       eyes,  format  for  highlighting  error messages and other
       attention getters.  (If you have a choice,  reverse  video
       plus  half-bright  is  good, or reverse video alone.)  The
       sequences to enter and exit standout  mode  are  given  as
       smso  and  rmso, respectively.  If the code to change into
       or out of standout mode leaves one or even two blank  spa-
       ces  on  the  screen,  as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do,
       then xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining  and  end  underlining  can  be
       given  as smul and rmul respectively.  If the terminal has
       a code to underline the current  character  and  move  the
       cursor one space to the right, such as the Microterm Mime,
       this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to  enter  various  highlighting  modes
       include  blink  (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim
       (dim or half-bright) invis (blanking  or  invisible  text)
       prot  (protected)  rev  (reverse video) sgr0 (turn off all
       attribute modes)  smacs  (enter  alternate  character  set
       mode)  and  rmacs  (exit  alternate  character  set mode).
       Turning on any of these modes singly may or may  not  turn
       off other modes.

       If  there  is  a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of
       modes, this should be given as sgr (set attributes),  tak-
       ing  9 parameters.  Each parameter is either 0 or nonzero,
       as the corresponding attribute is on or off.  The 9 param-
       eters  are, in order: standout, underline, reverse, blink,
       dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate character  set.   Not
       all  modes  need be supported by sgr, only those for which
       corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

        tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

        none                 none             \E[0m
        p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
        p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
        p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
        p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
        p5                   dim              not available
        p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
        p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
        p8                   protect          not used
        p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any  existing
       modes,  since  there  is no quick way to determine whether
       they are active.  Standout is set up to be the combination
       of  reverse  and  bold.   The vt220 terminal has a protect
       mode, though it is not commonly used  in  sgr  because  it
       protects  characters  on  the  screen from the host's era-
       sures.  The altcharset mode also is different in  that  it
       is  either ^O or ^N, depending on whether it is off or on.
       If all modes are turned  on,  the  resulting  sequence  is

       Some  sequences  are common to different modes.  For exam-
       ple, ;7 is output when either p1 or p3 is true,  that  is,
       if either standout or reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing  out  the above sequences, along with their depen-
       dencies yields

      sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

      \E[0                 always              \E[0
      ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
      ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
      ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
      ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
      ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
      m                    always              m
      ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you  must  also  specify
       sgr0.   Also, some implementations rely on sgr being given
       if sgr0 is, Not all terminfo entries necessarily  have  an
       sgr  string,  however.   Many terminfo entries are derived
       from termcap entries which have no sgr string.   The  only
       drawback  to  adding  an  sgr  string is that termcap also
       assumes that sgr0 does not exit  alternate  character  set

       Terminals  with  the  "magic  cookie" glitch (xmc) deposit
       special   "cookies"   when   they   receive   mode-setting
       sequences,  which affect the display algorithm rather than
       having extra bits for  each  character.   Some  terminals,
       such  as  the  HP  2621, automatically leave standout mode
       when they move to a new line or the cursor  is  addressed.
       Programs  using  standout  mode  should exit standout mode
       before moving the cursor or sending a newline, unless  the
       msgr  capability,  asserting  that  it  is safe to move in
       standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to  indi-
       cate  an  error quietly (a bell replacement) then this can
       be given as flash; it must not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more  visible  than  normal
       when it is not on the bottom line (to make, for example, a
       non-blinking underline into an easier  to  find  block  or
       blinking underline) give this sequence as cvvis.  If there
       is a way to make the  cursor  completely  invisible,  give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which
       undoes the effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters
       (with  no  special  codes  needed) even though it does not
       overstrike, then you should give the capability ul.  If  a
       character  overstriking  another leaves both characters on
       the screen, specify the capability os.  If overstrikes are
       erasable  with  a  blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

Keypad and Function Keys

       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the
       keys  are  pressed,  this  information can be given.  Note
       that it is not possible to handle terminals where the key-
       pad only works in local (this applies, for example, to the
       unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the  keypad  can  be  set  to
       transmit  or  not  transmit,  give these codes as smkx and
       rmkx.  Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow,  up  arrow,
       down  arrow,  and  home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1,
       kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there are  func-
       tion  keys  such  as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send
       can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these  keys  have
       labels  other  than the default f0 through f10, the labels
       can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be

       o   kll (home down),

       o   kbs (backspace),

       o   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       o   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       o   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       o   kdch1 (delete character),

       o   kdl1 (delete line),

       o   krmir (exit insert mode),

       o   kel (clear to end of line),

       o   ked (clear to end of screen),

       o   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       o   kil1 (insert line),

       o   knp (next page),

       o   kpp (previous page),

       o   kind (scroll forward/down),

       o   kri (scroll backward/up),

       o   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In  addition,  if  the  keypad  has a 3 by 3 array of keys
       including the four arrow keys, the other five keys can  be
       given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.  These keys are use-
       ful when the effects of a  3  by  3  directional  pad  are

       Strings  to  program  function keys can be given as pfkey,
       pfloc, and pfx.  A string to program screen labels  should
       be  specified  as  pln.   Each  of these strings takes two
       parameters: the function key number to program (from 0  to
       10)  and the string to program it with.  Function key num-
       bers out of this range may program  undefined  keys  in  a
       terminal  dependent  manner.   The  difference between the
       capabilities is that pfkey causes pressing the  given  key
       to  be the same as the user typing the given string; pfloc
       causes the string to be executed by the terminal in local;
       and  pfx  causes  the string to be transmitted to the com-

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of pro-
       grammable  screen  labels  and their width and height.  If
       there are commands to turn the labels  on  and  off,  give
       them  in smln and rmln.  smln is normally output after one
       or more pln sequences to make sure that the change becomes

Tabs and Initialization

       If  the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance
       to the next tab stop can be given as ht  (usually  control
       I).  A "back-tab" command which moves leftward to the pre-
       ceding tab stop can be given as cbt.   By  convention,  if
       the  teletype  modes indicate that tabs are being expanded
       by the computer rather than being sent  to  the  terminal,
       programs  should  not  use  ht  or  cbt  even  if they are
       present, since the user may not have the tab  stops  prop-
       erly  set.   If  the  terminal has hardware tabs which are
       initially set every n spaces when the terminal is  powered
       up,  the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number
       of spaces the tabs are set to.  This is normally  used  by
       the  tset command to determine whether to set the mode for
       hardware tab expansion, and whether to set the tab  stops.
       If  the  terminal  has tab stops that can be saved in non-
       volatile memory, the terminfo description can assume  that
       they are properly set.

       Other  capabilities include is1, is2, and is3, initializa-
       tion strings for the terminal, iprog, the path name  of  a
       program  to be run to initialize the terminal, and if, the
       name of a file  containing  long  initialization  strings.
       These  strings are expected to set the terminal into modes
       consistent with the  rest  of  the  terminfo  description.
       They are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option
       of the tput program, each time the  user  logs  in.   They
       will be printed in the following order:

              run the program

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most  initialization  is  done with is2.  Special terminal
       modes can be set up without duplicating strings by putting
       the  common  sequences in is2 and special cases in is1 and

       A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally
       unknown state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analo-
       gous to is1 ,  is2  ,  if  and  is3  respectively.   These
       strings  are  output  by  the reset program, which is used
       when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands  are
       normally  placed  in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they pro-
       duce annoying effects on the screen and are not  necessary
       when  logging  in.   For  example,  the command to set the
       vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be part  of  is2,
       but  it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not
       normally needed since the terminal is usually  already  in
       80 column mode.

       The reset program writes strings including iprog, etc., in
       the same order as  the  init  program,  using  rs1,  etc.,
       instead of is1, etc.  If any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset
       capability strings are missing, the  reset  program  falls
       back  upon  the  corresponding  initialization  capability

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can
       be  given  as tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab
       stop in the current column of every row).  If a more  com-
       plex  sequence  is  needed  to  set  the  tabs than can be
       described by this, the sequence can be placed  in  is2  or

Delays and Padding

       Many  older  and  slower  terminals  do not support either
       XON/XOFF or DTR handshaking, including hard copy terminals
       and  some  very  archaic CRTs (including, for example, DEC
       VT100s).  These may require padding characters after  cer-
       tain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control
       (that is, it automatically emits ^S back to the host  when
       its input buffers are close to full), set xon.  This capa-
       bility suppresses the emission of padding.  You  can  also
       set  it for memory-mapped console devices effectively that
       do not have a speed  limit.   Padding  information  should
       still  be  included so that routines can make better deci-
       sions about relative costs, but actual pad characters will
       not be transmitted.

       If  pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed
       at baud rates below the value of pb.  If the entry has  no
       padding  baud rate, then whether padding is emitted or not
       is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero)  charac-
       ter  as  a  pad,  then this can be given as pad.  Only the
       first character of the pad string is used.

Status Lines

       Some terminals have an extra "status line"  which  is  not
       normally  used  by  software  (and thus not counted in the
       terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case  is  a  status  line  which  is  cursor-
       addressable  but  not part of the main scrolling region on
       the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a  status  line  of  this
       kind,  as  would  a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line scrolling
       region set up on initialization.  This situation is  indi-
       cated by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to
       access the status line.   These  may  be  expressed  as  a
       string with single parameter tsl which takes the cursor to
       a given zero-origin column on the status line.  The  capa-
       bility fsl must return to the main-screen cursor positions
       before the last tsl.  You may need  to  embed  the  string
       values  of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl
       and fsl to accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the  same  width
       as  the width of the terminal.  If this is untrue, you can
       specify it with the numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be  speci-
       fied as dsl.

       The   boolean   capability  eslok  specifies  that  escape
       sequences, tabs, etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any  of  these
       capabilities.   They are documented here in case they ever
       become important.

Line Graphics

       Many terminals have alternate character  sets  useful  for
       forms-drawing.   Terminfo  and curses built-in support for
       the drawing characters supported by the VT100,  with  some
       characters  from  the  AT&T  4410v1 added.  This alternate
       character set may be specified by the acsc capability.

       Glyph                    ACS          Ascii  VT100  VT100

       Name                     Name         DefaultChar   Code
       arrow pointing right     ACS_RARROW   >      +      0x2b
       arrow pointing left      ACS_LARROW   <      ,      0x2c
       arrow pointing up        ACS_UARROW   ^      -      0x2d
       arrow pointing down      ACS_DARROW   v      .      0x2e
       solid square block       ACS_BLOCK    #      0      0x30
       diamond                  ACS_DIAMOND  +      `      0x60
       checker board (stipple)  ACS_CKBOARD  :      a      0x61
       degree symbol            ACS_DEGREE   \      f      0x66
       plus/minus               ACS_PLMINUS  #      g      0x67
       board of squares         ACS_BOARD    #      h      0x68
       lantern symbol           ACS_LANTERN  #      i      0x69
       lower right corner       ACS_LRCORNER +      j      0x6a
       upper right corner       ACS_URCORNER +      k      0x6b
       upper left corner        ACS_ULCORNER +      l      0x6c
       lower left corner        ACS_LLCORNER +      m      0x6d
       large plus or crossover  ACS_PLUS     +      n      0x6e
       scan line 1              ACS_S1       ~      o      0x6f
       scan line 3              ACS_S3       -      p      0x70
       horizontal line          ACS_HLINE    -      q      0x71
       scan line 7              ACS_S7       -      r      0x72
       scan line 9              ACS_S9       _      s      0x73
       tee pointing right       ACS_LTEE     +      t      0x74
       tee pointing left        ACS_RTEE     +      u      0x75
       tee pointing up          ACS_BTEE     +      v      0x76
       tee pointing down        ACS_TTEE     +      w      0x77
       vertical line            ACS_VLINE    |      x      0x78
       less-than-or-equal-to    ACS_LEQUAL   <      y      0x79
       greater-than-or-equal-to ACS_GEQUAL   >      z      0x7a
       greek pi                 ACS_PI       *      {      0x7b
       not-equal                ACS_NEQUAL   !      |      0x7c
       UK pound sign            ACS_STERLING f      }      0x7d
       bullet                   ACS_BULLET   o      ~      0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       o   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping  for
           lantern is uppercase "I" although Unix implementations
           use the lowercase "i" mapping.

       o   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using the alternate
           character set feature, temporarily switching modes and
           sending characters in the  range  0x60  (96)  to  0x7e

       o   The  AT&T  terminal  added graphics characters outside
           that range.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set  is  to
       add  a  column  to a copy of this table for your terminal,
       giving  the  character   which   (when   emitted   between
       smacs/rmacs  switches) will be rendered as the correspond-
       ing graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal  char-
       acter  pairs  right  to left in sequence; these become the
       ACSC string.

Color Handling

       The curses  library  functions  init_pair  and  init_color
       manipulate  the  color pairs and color values discussed in
       this section (see curs_color(3x) for details on these  and
       related functions).

       Most  color  terminals are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-

       o   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined  set  of  N
           colors  (where N is usually 8), and can set character-
           cell foreground  and  background  characters  indepen-
           dently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs.

       o   On  HP-like  terminals,  the  user must set each color
           pair up separately (foreground and background are  not
           independently  settable).   Up to M color-pairs may be
           set up from  2*M  different  colors.   ANSI-compatible
           terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color
       method.  The numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify
       the  maximum numbers of colors and color-pairs that can be
       displayed simultaneously.  The op (original  pair)  string
       resets  foreground  and background colors to their default
       values for the terminal.  The oc string resets all  colors
       or  color-pairs  to their default values for the terminal.
       Some terminals  (including  many  PC  terminal  emulators)
       erase  screen  areas  with  the  current  background color
       rather than the power-up default background; these  should
       have the boolean capability bce.

       While  the curses library works with color pairs (reflect-
       ing the inability of some devices to  set  foreground  and
       background colors independently), there are separate capa-
       bilities for setting these features:

       o   To change the current foreground or  background  color
           on  a  Tektronix-type  terminal,  use  setaf (set ANSI
           foreground) and setab (set ANSI  background)  or  setf
           (set  foreground)  and  setb  (set background).  These
           take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4  docu-
           mentation  describes  only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft
           says  that  "If  the  terminal  supports  ANSI  escape
           sequences  to  set  background  and  foreground,  they
           should be coded as setaf and setab, respectively.

       o   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to set
           background  and  foreground,  they  should be coded as
           setf and setb,  respectively.   The  vidputs  and  the
           refresh(3x) functions use the setaf and setab capabil-
           ities if they are defined.

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take  a  single
       numeric argument each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab
       are portably defined as follows (the middle column is  the
       symbolic #define available in the header for the curses or
       ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is free to  map
       these  as  it  likes,  but  the RGB values indicate normal
       locations in color space.

             Color       #define       Value       RGB
             black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
             red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
             green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
             yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
             blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
             magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
             cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
             white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb  historically  correspond
       to a different mapping, i.e.,

             Color       #define       Value       RGB
             black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
             blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
             green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
             cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
             red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
             magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
             yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
             white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capa-
       bilities; otherwise red/blue will be interchanged  on  the

       On  an  HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number
       parameter to set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       o   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability  ccc  may
           be  present  to  indicate that colors can be modified.
           If so, the initc capability will take a  color  number
           (0  to  colors  -  1)and  three  more parameters which
           describe the color.  These three parameters default to
           being  interpreted  as  RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.
           If the boolean capability hls  is  present,  they  are
           instead  as  HLS (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) indices.
           The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       o   On an HP-like terminal, initp may  give  a  capability
           for  changing  a color-pair value.  It will take seven
           parameters; a color-pair number (0 to max_pairs -  1),
           and  two  triples describing first background and then
           foreground colors.  These  parameters  must  be  (Red,
           Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending
           on hls.

       On some color terminals, colors collide  with  highlights.
       You can register these collisions with the ncv capability.
       This is a bit-mask of attributes not to be used when  col-
       ors  are  enabled.  The correspondence with the attributes
       understood by curses is as follows:

          Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
          A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
          A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
          A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
          A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
          A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
          A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
          A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
          A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
          A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
          A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
          A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
          A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
          A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
          A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
          A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
          A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For example,  on  many  IBM  PC  consoles,  the  underline
       attribute  collides  with the foreground color blue and is
       not available in color mode.  These  should  have  an  ncv
       capability of 2.

       SVr4  curses  does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it
       and optimizes the output in favor of colors.


       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero)  charac-
       ter  as  a  pad,  then this can be given as pad.  Only the
       first character of the pad string is used.  If the  termi-
       nal does not have a pad character, specify npc.  Note that
       ncurses implements  the  termcap-compatible  PC  variable;
       though  the  application  may  set this value to something
       other than a null, ncurses will test  npc  first  and  use
       napms if the terminal has no pad character.

       If  the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can
       be indicated with hu  (half-line  up)  and  hd  (half-line
       down).  This is primarily useful for superscripts and sub-
       scripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a  hard-copy  terminal
       can  eject  to  the next page (form feed), give this as ff
       (usually control L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character a  given
       number  of times (to save time transmitting a large number
       of identical characters) this can be  indicated  with  the
       parameterized  string  rep.   The  first  parameter is the
       character to be repeated and the second is the  number  of
       times  to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is
       the same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such  as
       the  TEKTRONIX  4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.  A
       prototype command character is chosen which is used in all
       capabilities.   This character is given in the cmdch capa-
       bility to identify it.  The following convention  is  sup-
       ported  on  some  UNIX  systems:  The environment is to be
       searched for a CC variable, and if found, all  occurrences
       of the prototype character are replaced with the character
       in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do  not  represent  a  specific
       kind of known terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and
       network, should include the  gn  (generic)  capability  so
       that  programs  can  complain that they do not know how to
       talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply  to
       virtual   terminal   descriptions  for  which  the  escape
       sequences are known.)

       If the terminal has a "meta key" which  acts  as  a  shift
       key,  setting  the  8th  bit of any character transmitted,
       this fact can be indicated with km.   Otherwise,  software
       will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it will usually
       be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode"  on
       and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If  the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on
       the screen at once, the number of lines of memory  can  be
       indicated  with  lm.   A  value of lm#0 indicates that the
       number of lines is not fixed, but that there is still more
       memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX vir-
       tual terminal protocol, the terminal number can  be  given
       as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer con-
       nected to the terminal can be given as mc0: print the con-
       tents  of  the screen, mc4: turn off the printer, and mc5:
       turn on the printer.  When the printer  is  on,  all  text
       sent  to  the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It is
       undefined whether the text is also displayed on the termi-
       nal screen when the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes
       one parameter, and leaves the printer on for as many char-
       acters  as  the  value  of  the  parameter, then turns the
       printer off.  The parameter should not  exceed  255.   All
       text,  including  mc4,  is  transparently  passed  to  the
       printer while an mc5p is in effect.

Glitches and Braindamage

       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow "~" characters  to
       be displayed should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am
       wrap, such as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to  get  rid  of  standout  (instead  of
       merely  writing  normal  text on top of it), xhp should be

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn  all  characters  moved
       over  to  blanks,  should  indicate xt (destructive tabs).
       Note:   the    variable    indicating    this    is    now
       "dest_tabs_magic_smso";  in  older  versions,  it was tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is
       not  possible  to  position  the cursor on top of a "magic
       cookie", that to erase standout mode it is instead  neces-
       sary to use delete and insert line.  The ncurses implemen-
       tation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly  trans-
       mit  the escape or control C characters, has xsb, indicat-
       ing that the f1 key is used for escape and f2 for  control
       C.   (Only  certain Superbees have this problem, depending
       on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo  versions,  this
       capability   was   called   "beehive_glitch";  it  is  now

       Other specific  terminal  problems  may  be  corrected  by
       adding more capabilities of the form xx.

Pitfalls of Long Entries

       Long  terminfo  entries  are  unlikely to be a problem; to
       date, no entry has even  approached  terminfo's  4096-byte
       string-table maximum.  Unfortunately, the termcap transla-
       tions are much more strictly limited (to 1023 bytes), thus
       termcap  translations  of  long terminfo entries can cause

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and  older  versions  of  tgetent
       instruct  the  user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the
       termcap entry.  The  entry  gets  null-terminated  by  the
       termcap library, so that makes the maximum safe length for
       a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what  the
       application  and  the termcap library being used does, and
       where in the termcap file the terminal type  that  tgetent
       is searching for is, several bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if
       they find an entry that's longer than 1023  bytes;  others
       do  not;  others truncate the entries to 1023 bytes.  Some
       application programs allocate more than the recommended 1K
       for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with
       it: before "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc"
       is  the  capability that tacks on another termcap entry to
       the end of the current one, to add  on  its  capabilities.
       If  a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability, then
       of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length  is  the  most  important
       one,  because it affects more than just users of that par-
       ticular terminal.  This is the length of the entry  as  it
       exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-newline pairs,
       which tgetent strips out while reading it.   Some  termcap
       libraries  strip  off  the final newline, too (GNU termcap
       does not).  Now suppose:

       o   a termcap entry before expansion  is  more  than  1023
           bytes long,

       o   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       o   and  the  termcap  library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1
           and GNU) reads the whole entry  into  the  buffer,  no
           matter  what  its length, to see if it is the entry it

       o   and tgetent is searching  for  a  terminal  type  that
           either  is the long entry, appears in the termcap file
           after the long entry, or does not appear in  the  file
           at  all (so that tgetent has to search the whole term-
           cap file).

       Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and
       probably  core dump the program.  Programs like telnet are
       particularly vulnerable; modern telnets pass along  values
       like  the  terminal  type  automatically.  The results are
       almost as undesirable with a termcap library,  like  SunOS
       4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it
       reads an overly long termcap entry.  If a termcap  library
       truncates  long  entries,  like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to
       dying here but will return incorrect data for  the  termi-

       The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect
       to the above, but only for people who actually set TERM to
       that terminal type, since tgetent only does "tc" expansion
       once it is found the terminal type it was looking for, not
       while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes
       can cause, on various combinations  of  termcap  libraries
       and  applications,  a  core  dump,  warnings, or incorrect
       operation.  If it is too long even before "tc"  expansion,
       it will have this effect even for users of some other ter-
       minal types and users whose TERM variable does not have  a
       termcap entry.

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses imple-
       mentation of tic(1m) issues warning messages when the pre-
       tc  length  of  a termcap translation is too long.  The -c
       (check) option also checks resolved (after  tc  expansion)

Binary Compatibility

       It  is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo
       entries between commercial UNIX versions.  The problem  is
       that  there  are  at least two versions of terminfo (under
       HP-UX and AIX) which diverged from System V terminfo after
       SVr1,  and have added extension capabilities to the string
       table that (in the binary format) collide  with  System  V
       and XSI Curses extensions.


       Searching for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and
       TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses  implementations,  and  all  previous  to
       SVr4,  do not interpret the %A and %O operators in parame-
       ter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether  msgr  licenses  movement
       while  in an alternate-character-set mode (such modes may,
       among other things, map CR and NL to  characters  that  do
       not  trigger  local  motions).  The ncurses implementation
       ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises  the  possi-
       bility  that  an  XPG4  implementation making the opposite
       interpretation may need terminfo entries made for  ncurses
       to have msgr turned off.

       The  ncurses  library handles insert-character and insert-
       character modes in a slightly non-standard way to get bet-
       ter  update  efficiency.   See the Insert/Delete Character
       subsection above.

       The  parameter  substitutions  for  set_clock   and   dis-
       play_clock  are  not  documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses
       standard.  They are deduced from the documentation for the
       AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be  careful  assigning  the kmous capability.  The ncurses
       library wants to interpret it as  KEY_MOUSE,  for  use  by
       terminals  and emulators like xterm that can return mouse-
       tracking information in the keyboard-input stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention italics.  Portable applica-
       tions  must  assume  that  numeric capabilities are signed
       16-bit values.  This  includes  the  no_color_video  (ncv)
       capability.   The  32768  mask value used for italics with
       ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled  ncv.   If
       italics  should  work with colors, then the ncv value must
       be specified, even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses  support
       different  subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some
       cases) different extension sets.  Here is a summary, accu-
       rate as of October 1995:

       o   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capa-

       o   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set,  adds  one  undocumented
           extended string capability (set_pglen).

       o   SVr1,  Ultrix  -- These support a restricted subset of
           terminfo  capabilities.    The   booleans   end   with
           xon_xoff; the numerics with width_status_line; and the
           strings with prtr_non.

       o   HP/UX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus  the  SVr[234]
           numerics  num_labels,  label_height, label_width, plus
           function keys 11 through 63, plus plab_norm, label_on,
           and  label_off,  plus  some incompatible extensions in
           the string table.

       o   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11
           through 63, plus a number of incompatible string table

       o   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the  AIX  exten-


       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*  files     containing     terminal


       tic(1m),    infocmp(1m),    curses(3x),    curs_color(3x),
       printf(3), term(5).  term_variables(3x).


       Zeyd  M.  Ben-Halim,  Eric  S.  Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.
       Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.